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Table 1 Description of included studies

From: Effects of Zinc supplementation on serum lipids: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors[ref] Year of Publication; Country Study design Duration of Zn supplementation n control(s)/placebo, n Zn supplement(s) n Other supplements Gender Age Health status Formulation Elemental Zn dose(s) Lipid parameters studied Significant outcomes
Afkhami-Ardekani et al. [18] 2008; Iran R, P 1.5 months 20 20 Both 52.67 ± 8.6 Type-2 diabetes patients ZnSO4 660 mg/daya TG, TC, HDL-c, LDL-c Reduction in TG, TC and LDL
Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group [48] 2002; United States R, DB, P 5 years 166 202 (Zn),168(Zn + antioxidants) 181 (antioxidants) Both 55-80 Patients with Age-related macular degeneration ZnO 80 mg/day TG, TC, HDL-c, LDL-c Lipid profile not significantly affected by long-term supplementation with Zinc
Black et al. [36] 1988; United States R, DB, P 3 months 9 13,9 Males 19-29 Healthy Zn gluconate 50 mg/day (n = 13) 75 mg/day (n = 9) TG, TC, HDL-c, LDL-c, VLDL Serum TC, VLDL, LDL-c, TG not affected. Both Zn groups had significantly lower HDL than placebo group and lower than baseline
Bogden et al. [37] 1988; United States R, DB, P 3 months 36 36, 31 Both 60-89 Healthy Zn acetate 15 mg/day (n = 36) 100 mg/day (n = 31) TC, HLD-c, Serum TC and HDL-c was not altered significantly by Zinc
Boukaïba et al. [35] 1993; France R, DB, C 2 months 23, 21 Both 73-106 Healthy 2 groups Reference- BMI >24 kg/m2 (n = 23) Zn gluconate 20 mg/day TG, TC, HDL-c, LDL-c Reduced TC in both Lean and Reference groups than placebo. Reduced HDL in Reference group. Higher TG in Lean group. No effect on TG in Reference group. Ratio of LDL-c to HDL-c not affected.
23, 21
Lean – BMI < 21 kg/m2 (n = 21)
Brewer et al. [49] 1991; United States O 1-5 years No controls Both NM Wilson’s disease NM TG, TC, HDL-c, HDL level reduced in males only. TC reduced in both genders.
LDL-c, TC/HDL-c
11(F), 13(M)
Chevalier et al. [38] 2002; United States R, DB, P 3 months 10 Both 23-80 End-Stage Renal ZnSO4 TC, HDL-c, TC and LDL-c increased. No change in HDL-c
Disease on Haemodialysis 50 mg/day LDL-c
10
Crouse et al. [39] 1984; United States R, DB, P 2 months 10,11 Males 20-55 Healthy ZnSO4 TG, TC, HDL-c, No significant change in lipid parameters in both groups
2 groups 28.7 mg/day LDL-c
11,12 Endurance trained
(n = 21)
Sedentary (n = 23)
Farvid et al. [34] 2004; Iran R, DB, P 3 months 18 Both 30-69 Type-2 ZnSO4 TG, TC, HDL-c, Co-supplementation of Mg, Zn, Vitamins C and E significantly increases HDL-c. TG, TC, LDL-c not altered
Diabetes patients 30 mg/day LDL-c
16 (Zn + Mg), 17(Zn + Mg + Vit.C + Vit.E) 18 (Vit C+ Vit.E)
Federico et al. [45] 2001; Italy R, CC 2 months 30 Both 46-61 Gut cancer patients NM TC No Significant reduction in TC
21 mg/day
30 (Zn + Se)
Feillet-Coudray et al. [40] 2006; France R, DB, P 6 months 16 (F),16 (M), 16 (F), 16 (M) Both 55-70 Healthy Zn gluconate TG, TC, HDL-c, No significant change in lipid parameters
16 (F), 16 (M), 15 (F), 16 (M)
LDL-c
15 mg/day(n = 32)
30 mg/day(n = 31)
Foster et al. [33] 2013; Australia R, DB, P 3 months 10 Females 65.0 ± 7.8 Type-2 Zn sulphate TG, TC, HDL-c, No significant change in lipid parameters
Diabetes patients 40 mg/day LDL-c
12 (Zn), 11 (Zn + ALA)
10 (ALA)
Freeland-Graves et al. [50] 1982; United States R, DB, P 2 months 8 Females 18-40 Healthy Zn Acetate HDL-c A transient non-dose related reduction in HDL-c
15 mg/day (n = 8)
8, 8, 8 50 mg/day (n = 8)
100 mg/day (n = 8)
Gatto and Samman [51] 1995; Australia R, B, C 1 month 10 Males 24.3 ± 4.2 Healthy ZnSO4 TG, TC, No significant changes in TC, LDL-c or TG. HDL2:HDL3 ratio increased
10 50 mg/day HDL-c,
LDL-c
Gunasekara et al. [46] 2011; Sri Lanka R, B, P 4 months 32 Both M-54.6 ± 7.0 Type-2 ZnSO4 TG, TC, HDL-c, Reduced TC, LDL and TC/HDL-c ratio only in the group receiving Zinc + MVM supplementation.
F- 54.9 ± 9.0 Diabetes patients 22 mg/day LDL-c
28 (Zn + MVM)
26 (MVM)
Hashemipour et al. [17] 2009; Iran R, DB, C 2 months 60 Both 6-10 Obese ZnSO4 TG, TC, HDL-c, TC, LDL-c and TG reduced. No change in HDL-c
20 mg/day LDL-c
60
Hercberg et al. [44] 2005; France R, DB, P 7.5 years 3869 (F), 2508(M) Both 35-60 Healthy Multi-vitamin TG, TC, HDL-c, Significant reduction of HDL-c in men. No significant change in other lipid parameters
3844 (F), 2520(M) (Zn 20 mg/day) LDL-c
Hininger-Favier et al. [41] 2007; Europe R, DB, P 6 months 130 Both 55-85 Healthy Zn Gluconate TG, TC, HDL-c, No effect with Zinc 15 mg/day or 30 mg/day
15 mg/day LDL-c, LDL:HDL
126, 131 (n = 126)
30 mg/day (n = 131)
Hooper et al. [52] 1980, United States P 5 weeks 8 Males 23-35 Healthy ZnSO4 TG, TC, HDL-c, 25 % reduction of HDL-c. TC, TG, and LDL-c no significant change.
160 mg/day
LDL-c
12
Kadhim et al. [20] 2006; Iraq DB, P 3 months 15 (Metformin + Placebo) Both 40-64 Type-2 Diabetes patients Zn acetate TG, TC, HDL-c, Reduced TC, TG and LDL-c. HDL-c significantly increased.
18 (Metformin + Melatonin + Zn) 50 mg/daya LDL-c
13 (Melatonin + Zn)
Khan et al. [42], 2013; India R, P 3 months 21 Both 40-69 Type-2 Diabetes patients ZnSO4 TG, TC, HDL-c, Decrease in TG. HDL-c increased. No change in TC and LDL-c.
23 50 mg/day LDL-c
Kim and Lee [21] 2012; South Korea P 2 months 20 Females 19-28 Obese Zn gluconate TG, TC, HDL-c No significant change in lipid parameters
30 mg/day
20
Li et al. [28] 2010; China R, DB, P 6.5 months 29 Females 18-55 Obese Multi-vitamin TG, TC, HDL-c, Reduced TC and LDL-c and increased HDL-c in multivitamin & mineral supplemented group. No change in TG.
(Zn 15 mg/day) LDL-c
30 (multivitamin & mineral)
28 (Calcium)
Partida-Hernández et al. [19] 2006, Mexico R, DB, C 3 months 27 Males 35-65 Type-2 ZnSO4 TG, TC, HDL-c, Reduced TC, TG, VLDL-c. Increased HDL-c
Diabetes patients 100 mg/daya LDL-c, VLDL-c
27
Payahoo et al. [26] 2013; Iran R, DB, P 1 month 30 Both 18-45 Obese Zn gluconate TG, TC, HDL-c, TG level decreased.
30
30 mg/daya LDL-c No change in other lipid parameters
Rahimi-Ardabili et al. [27] 2012; Iran R, DB, P 2 months 30 Both 52.8 ± 12.7 End-Stage Renal ZnSO4 TG, TC, HDL-c, No change in TC, TG and LDL-c.
30
Disease on Haemodialysis 100 mg/daya LDL-c Increase in HDL
RangaRao et al. [53] 1990; India CC 1 month 5 Males NM Type-1 ZnSO4 TG, TC, HDL-c No significant change in lipid parameters
Diabetes patients 660 mg/daya
7
Roozbeh et al. [22] 2009; Iran R, DB, P 1.5 months 26 Both 55.7 End-Stage Renal ZnSO4 TG, TC, HDL-c, Increase in TC, TG, LDL-c and HDL-c
Disease on Haemodialysis 50 mg/day LDL-c
27
Samman and Roberts [54] 1988; Australia R, DB, C 1.5 months 41 Both M-28.2 ± 2.0 Healthy ZnSO4 TC, LDL- No change in TC. In females LDL-C reduced. HDL2 increased and HDL 3 decreased.
41 F- 26.8 ± 1.6 150 mg/day c, HDL-c,
HDL2, HDL3
Seet et al. [23] 2011; Singapore R, B, P 3 months 20 Males NM Type-2 Zn gluconate TG, TC, HDL-c, No significant change in lipid parameters
Diabetes patients 240 mg/day LDL-c
20
Shah et al. [43] 1988; India R, P 1 month 10 Males 31-70 Ischaemic Heart ZnSO4 TC, TG, α- and Significant reduction in TC, β-lipoprotein. Increase in α-lipoprotein. No change in TG
Disease patients 600 mg/daya β-lipoprotein
10
Thurnham et al. [55] 1988; Chiina R, DB, P 13.5 months 610b Both 35-64 Healthy Zn gluconate TC No significant change
50 mg/d
  1. ALA-α-linolenic acid, B-Single blinded, C-Cross over; CC-Case–control, DB-Double Blinded, F-female, HDL-c-High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol, LDL-c-Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol, M-male, MVM- multivitamin/mineral,NM-Not Mentioned, O- Observational, P-Parallel, R–Randomized, TC-Total Cholesterol, TG-Triglycerides, Age presented as mean ± SD in years where data were available and as age range in other studies
  2. aDosage of formulation,; bNumber of participants in each group is not mentioned