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Table 1 Metabolic characteristics of the five groups at the end of the study

From: Moderate calorie restriction to achieve normal weight reverses β-cell dysfunction in diet-induced obese mice: involvement of autophagy

Parameter NC AL NC CR HF AL HF → NC HF → NC CR
Body weight (BW, g) 26.35 ± 0.38 21.12 ± 0.33 * 41.23 ± 1.16 * 30.49 ± 0.70 *,** 26.83 ± 0.67 **
Abdominal circumference (cm) 7.4 ± 0.2 6.6 ± 0.1 * 9.0 ± 0.2 * 7.6 ± 0.1 ** 6.9 ± 0.1 *,**
Lee index 323.18 ± 2.89 313.09 ± 3.67 * 332.83 ± 2.43 * 321.82 ± 2.75 ** 320.38 ± 3.00 **
Epididymal fat weight (%BW) 1.41 ± 0.11 0.20 ± 0.06 * 4.94 ± 0.19 * 2.37 ± 0.25 *,** 1.26 ± 0.32 **
Liver weight (mg) 1115.0 ± 20.0 828.0 ± 47.3 * 1263.1 ± 74.1 * 1052.2 ± 45.4 ** 882.0 ± 35.2 *,**
Pancreas weight (mg) 184.0 ± 20.0 186.3 ± 9.7 295.0 ± 14.9 * 211.1 ± 13.8 ** 194.4 ± 11.1 **
Fasting blood glucose (mmol/L) 4.9 ± 1.2 3.6 ± 1.8 7.9 ± 2.2 * 5.8 ± 0.7 ** 5.7 ± 1.5 **
Fasting plasma insulin (ng/mL) 0.18 ± 0.05 0.13 ± 0.08 0.74 ± 0.14 * 0.29 ± 0.07 *,** 0.20 ± 0.07 **
AUCglc0–120 (mmol/L × min) 880.1 ± 119.4 423.6 ± 109.1 * 1768.3 ± 166.8 * 1077.2 ± 136.5 ** 569.9 ± 100.0 **
AUCins0–120 (ng/mL × min) 22.66 ± 1.92 18.96 ± 4.22 34.86 ± 2.34 * 25.74 ± 3.86 ** 24.54 ± 2.70 **
Insulinogenic index 0.56 ± 0.07 0.96 ± 0.21 0.32 ± 0.22 0.59 ± 0.09 0.93 ± 0.22 **
HOMA-IR 0.87 ± 0.12 0.58 ± 0.17 5.97 ± 1.00 * 1.54 ± 0.11 ** 1.17 ± 0.25 **
Plasma triglycerides (mg/dl) 30.28 ± 2.16 19.63 ± 2.40 * 43.86 ± 3.88 * 38.13 ± 2.97 * 16.47 ± 1.19 *,**
Plasma total cholesterol (mg/dl) 70.60 ± 3.59 58.97 ± 3.85 152.17 ± 6.65 * 83.72 ± 4.60 *,** 65.34 ± 3.30 **
Plasma NEFA (mmol/L) 0.79 ± 0.06 0.63 ± 0.05 1.30 ± 0.06 * 1.03 ± 0.10 *,** 0.67 ± 0.06 **
Plasma adiponectin (μg/ml) 18.94 ± 1.18 18.71 ± 3.17 11.82 ± 1.64 * 12.80 ± 1.85 * 17.71 ± 1.49 **
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SE, n = 8 ~ 16. * indicates P < 0.05 versus NC AL group; ** indicates P < 0.05 versus HF AL group
  2. Abbreviations: NC normal chow, HF high-fat diet, AL ad libitum, CR calorie restriction, NEFA non-esterified fatty acid