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Table 4 Clinical and biological parameters in 83 children at baseline and after 1 year of a lifestyle intervention program

From: Ghrelin, adipokines, metabolic factors in relation with weight status in school-children and results of a 1-year lifestyle intervention program

Parameters Normal-weight (n = 28) Overweight (n = 28) Obese (n = 27)
Baseline T1-year P Baseline T1-year P Baseline T1-year P
BMI z-score −0.10 ± 1.03 −0.16 ± 0.85 0.446 1.47 ± 0.24 1.33 ± 0.44 0.021 2.18 ± 0.27 2.08 ± 0.40 0.008
FBG (mmol/L) 4.67 ± 0.38 4.63 ± 0.34 0.690 4.82 ± 0.42 4.69 ± 0.42 0.047 4.95 ± 0.40 4.69 ± 0.35 0.002
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.59 ± 0.36 1.45 ± 0.31 <0.001 1.21 ± 0.28 1.18 ± 0.21 0.425 1.19 ± 0.29 1.14 ± 0.28 0.248
LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.61 ± 0.75 2.37 ± 0.66 0.018 2.68 ± 0.59 2.48 ± 0.48 0.015 2.46 ± 0.59 2.43 ± 0.47 0.410
TG (mmol/L) 0.55 ± 0.26 0.56 ± 0.24 0.945 0.78 ± 0.40 0.73 ± 0.39 0.682 0.86 ± 0.32 0.80 ± 0.36 0.254
Insulin (μU/mL) 13.4 ± 3.6 11.8 ± 6.1 0.048 19.9 ± 12.5 15.8 ± 7.0 0.019 28.4 ± 13.7 26.2 ± 17.7 0.019
HOMA-IR index 2.80 ± 0.86 2.48 ± 1.37 0.065 4.18 ± 3.04 3.31 ± 1.56 0.079 6.32 ± 3.19 5.53 ± 3.95 0.011
Leptin (ng/mL) 6.0 ± 5.19 6.78 ± 1.9 0.234 25.0 ± 13.0 25.5 ± 18.1 0.857 37.7 ± 22.5 33.4 ± 24.2 0.008
Adiponectin (μg/mL) 6.43 ± 2.51 7.98 ± 3.56 0.001 5.17 ± 2.39 6.71 ± 2.77 0.002 3.96 ± 1.84 5.0 ± 2.41 <0.001
  1. FBG fasting blood glucose, BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance
  2. All p-values are in italic and significant p-value are in bolditalic