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Table 1 Descriptive characteristics of the study population

From: Higher visceral fat area increases the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in Chinese adults

Characteristics Total Men Women P-valuea
n 1105 257 848  
Age, y 43.82 ± 12.15 45.44 ± 12.18 43.33 ± 12.11 0.015
Body mass index, kg/m2 23.67 ± 3.37 26.18 ± 3.39 22.90 ± 2.97 <0.001
Waist circumference, cm 82.79 ± 9.08 90.42 ± 8.57 80.48 ± 7.90 <0.001
Waist-to- hip ratio 0.87 ± 0.05 0.91 ± 0.04 0.84 ± 0.04 <0.001
Fat mass, kg 20.13 ± 6.06 21.45 ± 6.91 19.73 ± 5.72 <0.001
Free fat mass, kg 44.66 ± 8.96 58.41 ± 6.56 40.50 ± 4.11 <0.001
Percentage body fat, % 30.89 ± 6.06 26.35 ± 5.57 32.27 ± 5.51 <0.001
Visceral fat area, cm2 87.30 ± 35.44 116.13 ± 34.87 78.56 ± 30.68 <0.001
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 113.79 ± 15.72 120.54 ± 12.72 111.07 ± 16.01 <0.001
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 75.52 ± 10.06 80.30 ± 9.34 73.59 ± 9.70 <0.001
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 4.98 ± 0.98 5.03 ± 0.95 4.97 ± 1.00 bNS
Triglycerides, mmol/L 1.03(0.73–1.51) 1.41(0.99–2.00) 0.95(0.69–1.36) <0.001
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, mmol/L 1.33 ± 0.28 1.16 ± 0.21 1.38 ± 0.28 <0.001
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, mmol/L 2.96 ± 0.80 3.10 ± 0.76 2.92 ± 0.82 0.001
Fasting plasma glucose, mmol/L 5.73 ± 1.03 5.96 ± 1.28 5.66 ± 0.92 <0.001
25(OH)D3, μg/L 36.46 ± 24.70 33.26 ± 19.80 37.44 ± 25.94 0.018
Smoking, % yes 11.86 42.80 2.48 <0.001
Drinking, % yes 38.82 70.04 29.36 <0.001
Doing exercise, % yes 46.06 64.98 40.33 <0.001
Sunshine time, h/day 0.5(0.0,1.0) 1.0(0.0,2.0) 0.5(0.0,1.0) <0.001
Vitamin D supplement users, % yes 2.26 2.33 2.24 bNS
Obesity, % 13.76 29.18 9.08 <0.001
Visceral fat obesity, %     
 Men: WC ≥90 cm; women: WC ≥ 80 cm 44.71 50.58 42.92 0.031
 Men: VFA ≥130 cm2; women: VFA ≥ 100 cm2 23.53 35.40 19.92 <0.001
25(OH)D3 status*     
 Vitamin D insufficiency, % 26.60 18.68 29.00 0.001
 Vitamin D deficiency, % 24.89 33.46 22.29 <0.001
  1. Values are percentages for categorical variables, means ± SDs for continuous variables with a normal distribution, or medians (95 % ranges) for continuous variables with a skewed distribution
  2. Abbreviations: WC, waist circumference; VFA, visceral fat area; 25(OH)D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D
  3. aComparison among men and women
  4. bNS = no significant at p value > .05
  5. *25(OH)D3 status was defined as follows: A serum level of 25(OH) D3 < 20 μg/L is considered to be vitamin D deficiency, whereas a level 20–29 μg/L is insufficient