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Table 3 Characteristics of the study population according to quartiles of visceral fat area levels in women

From: Higher visceral fat area increases the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in Chinese adults

  Pre-menopausal women  
Quartiles of visceral fat area (cm2) P-valuea
Q1 (<53.15) Q2 (53.15–66.18) Q3 (66.18–84.47) Q4 (≥84.47)
n 153 144 163 153  
Age, y 33.09 ± 6.30 36.54 ± 7.54# 38.35 ± 6.91# & 41.27 ± 7.41# & $ 0.000
Body mass index, kg/m2 20.51 ± 1.33 21.54 ± 1.46# 22.44 ± 1.77# & 25.48 ± 3.46# & $ 0.000
Waist circumference, cm 73.06 ± 3.74 76.67 ± 3.48# 79.62 ± 3.92# & 88.27 ± 7.90# & $ 0.000
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.81 ± 0.02 0.84 ± 0.02# 0.86 ± 0.02# & 0.90 ± 0.04# & $ 0.000
Fat mass, kg 14.39 ± 2.71 17.02 ± 2.90# 18.99 ± 3.08# & 24.93 ± 5.80# & $ 0.000
Free fat mass, kg 39.65 ± 3.46 39.84 ± 3.69 40.16 ± 3.42 43.23 ± 4.85# & $ 0.000
Percentage body fat, % 26.53 ± 3.69 29.85 ± 3.74# 32.01 ± 3.58# & 36.26 ± 4.46# & $ 0.000
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 102.64 ± 12.01 102.31 ± 10.81 106.97 ± 112.46# 110.85 ± 15.45# & 0.000
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 69.03 ± 8.46 69.18 ± 7.37 72.13 ± 8.73 74.38 ± 10.18# & 0.001
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 4.42 ± 0.72 4.63 ± 0.77# 4.73 ± 0.87# 4.90 ± 0.87# & $ 0.000
Triglycerides, mmol/L 0.66(0.58–0.86) 0.79(0.64–1.07)# 0.94(0.69–1.25)# & 1.16(0.80–1.55)# & $ 0.000
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, mmol/L 1.46 ± 0.29 1.41 ± 0.30 1.32 ± 0.24# & 1.26 ± 0.25# & 0.000
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, mmol/L 2.41 ± 0.62 2.64 ± 0.63# 2.81 ± 0.76# & 3.02 ± 0.75# & $ 0.000
Fasting plasma glucose, mmol/L 5.29 ± 0.47 5.37 ± 0.45 5.55 ± 0.78# & 5.77 ± 0.90# & $ 0.000
25(OH)D3, μg/L 43.25 ± 28.90 42.30 ± 28.02 38.39 ± 24.11 35.80 ± 27.38# & 0.002
Smoking, % yes 0.65 0.69 0.61 0.65 bNS
Drinking, % yes 22.22 25.00 24.54 29.41 bNS
Doing exercise, % yes 44.44 48.61 43.56 47.06 bNS
Sunshine time, h/day 1.00(0.50–0.10) 1.00(0.00–1.00) 1.00(0.50–0.10) 1.00(0.50–0.10) bNS
Vitamin D supplement users, % yes 1.96 0.69 1.23 0.65 bNS
  Post-menopausal women  
  Quartiles of visceral fat area (cm2) P-valuea
  Q1(<71.55) Q2(71.55–91.97) Q3(91.97–115.73) Q4(≥115.73)  
n 59 59 59 58  
Age, y 58.17 ± 7.74 59.25 ± 5.49 58.95 ± 5.60 59.38 ± 5.81 bNS
Body mass index, kg/m2 21.43 ± 1.60 22.62 ± 1.22# 24.18 ± 2.00# & 27.64 ± 2.51# & $ 0.000
Waist circumference, cm 75.57 ± 4.19 79.47 ± 2.73# 84.24 ± 4.41# & 93.64 ± 6.10# & $ 0.000
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.82 ± 0.02 0.86 ± 0.01# 0.89 ± 0.01# & 0.93 ± 0.03# & $ 0.000
Fat mass, kg 16.80 ± 2.85 19.42 ± 2.35# 22.66 ± 3.51# & 29.18 ± 4.87# & $ 0.000
Free fat mass, kg 38.72 ± 3.89 38.79 ± 2.88 39.66 ± 3.24 42.51 ± 4.45# & $ 0.000
Percentage body fat, % 30.18 ± 3.77 33.34 ± 3.03# 36.25 ± 3.45# & 40.55 ± 3.97# & $ 0.000
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 115.14 ± 14.90 120.78 ± 18.67 122.36 ± 13.65 124.88 ± 15.37 bNS
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 75.97 ± 9.47 76.72 ± 8.67 77.22 ± 8.23 81.63 ± 10.04# & $ 0.029
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 5.64 ± 0.93 5.84 ± 0.10 5.88 ± 1.17 5.58 ± 0.82 bNS
Triglycerides, mmol/L 1.10(0.67–1.40) 1.21 (0.93–1.50)# 1.40(1.07–1.94)# & 158(1.16–1.89)# & 0.000
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, mmol/L 1.55 ± 0.30 1.42 ± 0.23# 1.33 ± 0.25# 1.35 ± 0.26# 0.000
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, mmol/L 3.31 ± 0.80 3.57 ± 0.73 3.54 ± 0.85 3.33 ± 0.81 bNS
Fasting plasma glucose, mmol/L 5.75 ± 1.34 6.06 ± 1.13 6.35 ± 1.51 6.10 ± 0.84 bNS
25(OH)D3, μg/L 33.04 ± 22.62 33.63 ± 20.89 29.77 ± 20.90 27.78 ± 19.64 bNS
Smoking, % yes 3.39 6.78 8.47 10.34 bNS
Drinking, % yes 33.90 38.98 40.68 46.55 bNS
Doing exercise, % yes 32.20 30.51 22.03 18.97 bNS
Sunshine time, h/day 1.00(0.50–0.10) 1.00(0.00–1.00) 1.00(0.50–0.10) 1.00(0.50–0.10) bNS
Vitamin D supplement users, % yes 3.39 5.08 6.78 5.17 bNS
  1. Values are percentages for categorical variables, means ± SDs for continuous variables with a normal distribution, or medians (95 % ranges) for continuous variables with a skewed distribution
  2. Abbreviations: 25(OH) D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3
  3. aComparison among four groups
  4. bNS = no significant at p value > .05
  5. #Compared with Q1, P < 0.05
  6. &Compared with Q2, P < 0.05
  7. $Compared with Q3, P < 0.05