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Table 4 The odd ratios of different fatness indices and vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in men and women

From: Higher visceral fat area increases the risk of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in Chinese adults

Gender Fatness indices Crude model Adjusted modela
OR (95 % CI) P-Value OR (95 % CI) P-Value
Men Visceral fat area     
Q1(<89.95 cm2) 1.0   1.0  
Q2(89.95–115.72 cm2) 2.059(0.990–4.281) 0.053 1.320(0.476–3.662) 0.594
Q3(115.72–140.46 cm2) 3.987(1.900–8.364) 0.000 2.424(0.916–6.417) 0.075
Q4(≥140.46 cm2) 7.667(3.495–16.817) 0.000 4.894(1.792–13.365) 0.002
Continuous 1.025(1.016–1.034)   1.719(1.251–2.361)  
P-value for trend 0.000   0.001  
Body mass index     
<28 kg/m2 1.0   1.0  
≥28 kg/m2 3.930(2.162–7.142) 0.000 2.857(1.360–6.001) 0.006
Waist circumference     
<90 cm 1.0   1.0  
≥90 cm 3.007(1.809–4.998) 0.000 2.199(1.130–4.279) 0.020
Waist-to-hip ratio     
<0.90 1.0   1.0  
≥0.90 3.802(2.210–6.539) 0.000 2.052(1.010–4.169) 0.047
Pre-menopausal women Visceral fat area     
Q1(<53.15 cm2) 1.0   1.0  
Q2(53.15–66.18 cm2) 1.240(0.781–1.968) 0.361 1.097(0.644–1.868) 0.735
Q3(66.18–84.47 cm2) 1.257(0.803–1.068) 0.317 1.215(0.717–2.059) 0.469
Q4(≥84.47 cm2) 2.338(1.478–3.697) 0.000 1.837(1.051–3.210) 0.033
Continuous 1.013(1.008–1.018)   1.265(1.037–1.543)  
P-value for trend 0.000   0.030  
Body mass index     
<28 kg/m2 1.0   1.0  
≥28 kg/m2 3.921(1.952–7.875) 0.000 3.052(1.430–6.514) 0.004
Waist circumference     
<80 cm 1.0   1.0  
≥80 cm 1.809(1.297–2.523) 0.000 1.647(1.121–2.419) 0.011
Waist-to-hip ratio     
<0.85 1.0   1.0  
≥0.85 1.487 (1.081–2.046) 0.015 1.281(0.878–1.871) 0.199
Post-menopausal women Visceral fat area     
  Q1(<71.55 cm2) 1.0   1.0  
  Q2(71.55–91.97 cm2) 0.813(0.392–1.686) 0.577 0.912 (0.359–2.319) 0.847
  Q3(91.97–115.73 cm2) 1.153(0.550–2.418) 0.706 1.254(0.506–3.106) 0.625
  Q4(≥115.73 cm2) 1.800(0.829–3.909) 0.137 2.326(0.903–5.991) 0.080
  Continuous 1.010(1.001–1.019)   1.012(1.002–1.022)  
  P-value for trend 0.028   0.024  
  Body mass index     
  <28 kg/m2 1.0   1.0  
  ≥28 kg/m2 1.577(0.691–3.598) 0.279 1.379(0.548–3.470) 0.494
  Waist circumference     
  <80 cm 1.0   1.0  
  ≥80 cm 1.391(0.814–2.377) 0.228 1.522(0.780–2.969) 0.218
  Waist-to-hip ratio     
  <0.85 1.0   1.0  
  ≥0.85 1.413(0.776–2.573) 0.258 1.540(0.732–3.241) 0.255
  1. aAdjusted for age, smoking status, drinking status, exercise status, sunshine time and lipid profiles