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Table 2 Glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity at baseline and after the intervention. The significance threshold for adjusted p-values using the Holm-Bonferroni correction is 0.05

From: Combined intervention with pioglitazone and n-3 fatty acids in metformin-treated type 2 diabetic patients: improvement of lipid metabolism

  Placebo Pio Omega-3 Pio& Omega-3
HbA1c (IFCC, mmol/mol)     
 Baseline 52 (48, 56) 52 (47, 54) 50 (47, 55) 49 (44, 53)
 Week 24 49 (48, 51) 49 (46, 55) 58 (51, 73) 48 (46, 53)
 ∆ 0 (−5, 1) 0 (−5, 1) 7 (1, 13)a, b 0 (−3, 2)
 ∆ (%) 0.0 (−8.9, 2.1) 0.0 (−7.6, 1.9) 14.7 (2.6, 22.1)a, b 0.0 (−6.2, 3.9)
Fasting blood glucose (mmol/l)
 Baseline 7.31 (6.40, 8.27) 7.48 (7.15, 8.47) 7.67 (6.53, 8.87) 7.10 (6.51, 8.18)
 Week 24 7.26 (5.99, 8.17) 7.39 (6.79, 8.00) 9.10 (7.34, 10.50) 7.22 (6.59, 8.44)
 ∆ −0.10 (−1.32, 0.80) −0.25 (−0.78, 0.01) 1.07 (0.18, 2.02)b 0.05 (−0.51, 0.47)
 ∆ (%) −1.2 (−18.1, 12.4) −3.7 (−8.4, 0.1) 17.0 (1.6, 25.2)b 0.8 (−5.6, 7.4)
M (mg/kg.min−1)     
 Baseline 3.42 (2.38, 3.97) 2.51 (2.12, 4.10) 2.66 (2.15, 3.34) 3.21 (2.52, 3.68)
 Week 24 2.79 (1.89, 3.09) 2.93 (2.69, 4.47) 2.33 (1.18, 3.41) 3.55 (3.08, 4.34)c
 ∆ −0.60 (−1.24, 0.60) 0.29 (−0.34, 1.30) −0.58 (−1.25, −0.13) 0.53 (−0.20, 0.92)
 ∆ (%) −17.1 (−38.1, 17.2) 12.0 (−13.0, 52.7) −21.2 (−41.0, 1.9) 14.6 (−6.2, 40.3)
  1. Data represent a median and interquartile range (Q1, Q3). Glycemia and plasma HbA1c levels were measured in overnight (8–10-h) fasting patients, while glucose disposal rate (M) was evaluated using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp at baseline and at week 24. ∆, a difference between week 24 and baseline values, ∆ (%), a difference between week 24 and baseline values in % of the baseline value. a, b, cSignificant differences compared with Placebo, Pio, and Omega-3, respectively