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Table 1 Summary from animal studies of impact probiotic strains on obesity and associated diseases

From: Probiotics in prevention and treatment of obesity: a critical view

Study Experimental model of obesity Type of probiotics Duration of intervention Key findings
Yoo et al. 2013 [49] high-fat high-cholesterol diet (HFHCD) Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 alone or in combination with Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 9 weeks parallel with HFHCD ↓ body weight gain
↓ hepatic lipid droplet accumulation and adipocyte size
↓ cholesterol in plasma and liver
↓ gene expressions fo fatty acid synthesis enzymes
↓ proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1b)
Park et al. 2013 [50] HFD/placebo or normal chow for 8 weeks Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 10 weeks after HFD ↓ body weight gain and fat accumulation
↓plasma insulin, leptin, total-cholesterol and liver toxicity biomarkers
↓ pro-inflammatory genes (TNFα, IL6, IL1β and MCP1) in adipose tissue
↓ fatty acid oxidation-related genes (PGC1α, CPT1, CPT2 and ACOX1)in the liver
Wang et al. 2015 [51] HFD/placebo or normal chow Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4270, Lactobacillus rhamnosus I-3690 or Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis I-2494 12 weeks parallel with HFD ↓ body weight gain
↓ macrophage infiltration into epididymal adipose tissue
↓ hepatic steatosis
↑ glucose–insulin homeostasis
Strain-specific attenuation of obesity comorbidities throth impacts on MS-associated phylotypes of gut microbiota in mice
An et al. 2011 [52] HFD/normal chow Lactic acid bacterium (LAB) supplement (B. pseudocatenulatum SPM 1204, B. longum SPM 1205, and B. longum SPM 1207; 108 ~ 109 CFU) 7 weeks parallel with HFD ↓ body weight gain and fat accumulation
↓blood serum levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, triglyceride, glucose, leptin
↓liver toxicity biomarkers (AST, ALT)
Chen et al. 2012 [53] HFD/normal chow Bifidobacterium adolescentis 12 weeks parallel with HFD ↓ body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation
↑insulin sensitivity
Zhao et al. 2012 [54] HFD for 6 weeks/normal chow Pediococcus pentosaceus LP28 / Lactobacillus plantarum SN13T as comparator 8 weeks after HFD ↓ body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation and liver lipid contents (triglyceride and cholesterol)
↓ hepatic lipid droplet accumulation and adipocyte size
↓ lipid metabolism-related genes (CD36, SCD1, PPARγ)
Gauffin et al. 2012 [55] HFD/normal chow Bacteroides uniformis CECT 7771 7 weeks parallel with HFD ↓body weight gain, visceral fat accumulation and liver lipid contents (triglyceride and cholesterol)
↑small adipocyte numbers
↓serum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, insulin and leptin levels,
↑oral tolerance to glucose
↓dietary fat absorption (reduced number of fat micelles in enterocytes)
↑ immune defence mechanisms
Everard et al. 2013 [33] HFD/normal chow Akkermansia muciniphila(alive versus heat- killed) 4 weeks parallel with HFD ↓body weight gain
↓metabolic endotoxemia and adipose tissue inflammation
↓insulin resistance
↑intestinal levels of endocannabinoids that control inflammation, the gut barrier, and gut peptide secretion
- all these effects required alive A. muciniphila because treatment with heat-killed cells did not improve the metabolic profile or the mucus layer thickness
- administration of prebiotics (oligofructose) to ob/ob mice increased the abundance of A. muciniphila by  100-fold.
ob/ob mice/placebo (vehicle)
Everard et al. 2014 [56] db/db mice/placebo (vehicle) Saccharomyces boulardii Biocodex 4 weeks ↓body weight gain and fat mass
↓hepatic steatosis and total liver lipids content
↓decreases hepatic (50 % decrease in CD11c macrophages level, F4/80, IL-1β and MCP-1mRNA)
↓systemic inflammation (↓plasma cytokine concentrations of IL-6, IL-4, IL-1β and TNF-α).
Kim et al. 2013 [57] HFD/normal chow Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG 13 weeks parallel with HFD ↓body weight gain and fat mass
↑insulin sensitivity,
↑expression of genes related to glucose metabolism (GLUT4 mRNA in skeletal muscle)
↑ adiponectin production in adipose tissue
↑ AMPK in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue
Tabuchi et al. 2003 [58] Neonatally streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats/placebo (vehicle) Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG 10 weeks ↓ HbA1c
↑oral tolerance to glucose
Park et al. 2015 [59] db/db mice/placebo (vehicle) Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG 4 weeks ↑ glucose tolerance
↑insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle
↓endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in skeletal muscle
↓M1-like macrophage activation in white adipose tissues
↑insulin sensitivity
Yadav et al. 2006 [60] high-fructose diet/normal chow Lactococcus lactis 42 days parallel with high-fructose diet ↓ HbA1c
↓fasting blood glucose, insulin, free fatty acids and triglyceride
Yadav et al. 2007 [61] high-fructose diet/normal chow Lactobacillus casei/Lactobacillus acidophilus 8 weeks parallel with high-fructose diet ↓ HbA1c
↓fasting blood glucose plasma insulin, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol and blood free fatty acids
↓liver glycogen
↓thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and
↑ reduced glutathione in liver and pancreatic tissues
Ritze et al. 2014 [65] high-fructose diet/without control Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG 8 weeks parallel with high-fructose diet ↓ liver inflammation and steatosis (protection from NAFLD development)
↓duodenal IκB protein levels and restoration of the duodenal tight junction protein concentration
↓ portal LPS
↓ TNF-α, IL-8R and IL-1β mRNA expression in the liver
Yin et al. 2010 [66] HFD/normal chow Bifidobacteria L66-5, L75-4, M13-4 and FS31-12 6 weeks parallel with HFD ↓liver triglyceride, total cholesterol and total lipid deposition (all 4 strains, but in strain-dependent manner, more pronounced for B. L66-5)
↓serum triglyceride and total cholesterol (all 4 strains, but in strain-dependent manner, more pronounced for B. L66-5 and B. FS31-12)
↓ body weight gain - B. L66-5
↑ body weight gain - B. M13-4
No changes in body weight gain L75-4 and FS31-12
Reichold A et al. 2014 [67] HFD/normal chow Bifidobacteria adolescentis 12 weeks parallel with HFD ↓ body weight gain
↓liver inflammation and steatosis (protection from NASH development)
↓ formation of reactive oxygen species
↓ activation of NFκB
No effect on portal LPS, TLR-4 and Myd-88 mRNA expression in livers
Plaza-Diaz et al. 2014 [68] ob/ob mice/placebo (vehicle) Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-4034, Bifidobacterium breve CNCM I-4035 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CNCM or mixture of 3 strains 30 days ↓ triacylglycerol liver content (for L. rhamnosus, B. breve or the mixture)
↓ neutral lipids liver content (for all four probiotic groups)
↓ serum LPS levels (for all four probiotic groups)
↓ serum TNF-α levels (for B. breve, L. rhamnosus or the mixture)
↓ serum IL-6 levels (for L. paracasei)
Savcheniuk O et al. 2014 [63, 64] Monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced obesity/placebo (vehicle) 14 alive probiotic strains (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Bifidobacterium, Propionibacterium, Acetobacter) 3 month ↓body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation
↓liver lipid contents (protection from NAFLD development)
↓serum cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, insulin and leptin levels,
↑insulin sensitivity (decreased HOMA-IR, increased adipocitokine)