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Table 2 Effect of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives on obesity and adipocyte dysfunction

From: Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives: a potential class of natural compounds for the management of lipid metabolism and obesity

Derivatives Model Experimental outcome Reference
Cinnamic acid 3 T3-L1 adipocytes - Stimulated the secretion of adiponectin and the phosphorylation of AMPK in 3 T3-L1 adipocytes and therefore improves insulin sensitivity [123]
  - Cinnamic acid (30 mg/kg/day) for 7 weeks - The administration of CA to HFD-fed rats reduced the body weight gain. [122]
- HFD diet fed Male Wistar rats
Coumaric acid 3 T3-L1 adipocytes - Inhibition of adipogenesis in 3 T3-L1 adipocytes. [124]
- o-coumaric acid inhibited GPDH activity and the expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα and leptin and then up-regulated expression of adiponectin.
  3 T3-L1 adipocytes - p-Coumaric acid inhibited TNF-α-induced changes in levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in 3 T3-L1 adipocytes. [125]
- p-Coumaric acid increased the secretion of adiponectin, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in TNF-α-treated 3 T3-L1 adipocytes
  Wistar rats fed a high fat diet.(100 mg/kg) - Decreased body weight, liver organ, and adipose tissue weights of peritoneal and epididymal fat pads. [12]
- Decreased hepatic triacylglycerol and cholesterol levels.
- Enhanced the levels of glutathione (GSH), GSH peroxidase (GPx), GSH reductase (GRd), and GSH S-transferase (GST) in the hepatic tissue
Ferulic acid high fat diet-induced obesity in mice - Oryzanol or ferulic acid significantly suppressed the weight gain of the high fat diet-induced obesity in mice. [97]
- Ferulic acid is more effectively suppressed the weight gain compared to oryzanol.
Caffeic acid 3 T3-L1 adipocytes - Inhibitory effects on increased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity and an increased insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1). [126]
- Reduced the levels of leptin, resistin, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha.
  High-fat diet induced obese mice (0.02 % CFA of diet (wt/wt) dose) - Lowered body weight, visceral fat mass and plasma leptin and insulin levels. [15]
- Inhibited fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase and acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activities.
- increased fatty acid β-oxidation activity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α expression in the liver
Chlorogenic acid High-fat diet induced obese mice (0.02 % CGA of diet (wt/wt) dose) - Lowered body weight, visceral fat mass and plasma leptin and insulin levels. [15]
- Inhibited fatty acidsynthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase and acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase activities.
- Increased fatty acid β-oxidation activity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α expression in the liver.
  Streptozotocin (STZ)–nicotinamide (NA)-induced type 2 diabetic rats CGA (5 mg/kg b.w.) - Decreased plasma and tissue triglycerides, free fatty acids. [104]
- Decreased the activity of HMG-CoA reductase.
- Prevents lipid accumulation in liver.
  Insulin resistant (fa/fa) Zucker rats (infused CGA 5 mg/Kg body weight/day) - Fasting plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerols concentrations were significantly decreased. [103]
  Golden hamsters (80 mg CGA/kg body weight daily given peritonially) - Lowered fasting serum triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), glucose (FSG), and insulin (FSI). [127]
- Increased hepatic lipase (HL), lower contents of TG and FFA in liver and lower activity of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in skeletal muscle.
- Elevated the expression level of mRNA and protein expression in hepatic PPAR-α.
  High Cholesterol diet fed Sprague–Dawley rats (1 or 10 mg/kg/day p.o. CGA) - Lowered total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein. [128]
- Up-regulated of peroxisome proliferation-activated receptor α mRNA in liver.