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Table 3 Summary of beigeing criteria met by the thermoregulatory genes and putative beige markers when studied under in vitro and in vivo conditions

From: Evaluation of markers of beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue of the mouse

Condition UCP1 CIDEA Cox8b FGF21 P2RX5 PAT2 CITED1 CAR4 TBX1 CD137 TMEM26
(A) Beige > white cell culture*  
(B) Beige > white cell culture (adrenergic stimulation)    
(C) Least changed by adrenergic stimulation cell culture            
(D) Elevated in WAT by cold exposure* (young adult mice)      
(E) Large dynamic range in WAT* (young adult mice)        
(F) Elevated in WAT by cold exposure* (older mice)         
(G) Adipocyte fraction > SVF*        
(H) Elevated in adipocyte fraction by cold exposure*   
(I) Beige adipocyte > SVF cells cell culture    
  1. A check mark indicates whether the thermoregulatory genes (columns 2 to 4) or beige transcripts (columns 5 to 12) denoted across the top row met the conditions of a beigeing marker detailed in the first column. The conditions are: A) the marker is significantly elevated in beige over white adipocytes in cell culture, B) the marker is significantly elevated in beige over white adipocytes in cell culture in the presence of adrenergic stimulation, C) the marker was least changed by adrenergic stimulation in beige and white adipocytes in cell culture, D) the marker was significantly elevated by cold exposure in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of young adult mice, E) the marker displayed at least a 2 fold dynamic range in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of young adult mice exposed to cold, F) the marker was significantly elevated by cold exposure in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of older mice, G) the marker was expressed at a significantly higher level in the adipocyte fraction compared to the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous adipose tissue of older mice reared at room temperature, H) the marker was significantly elevated by cold exposure in the adipocyte fraction of subcutaneous adipose tissue of older mice exposed to the cold, and I) the marker was expressed at significantly higher levels in SVF cells differentiated into beige adipocytes compared to undifferentiated SVF cells in culture. Conditions marked with an asterisk (*) denote criteria defined a priori to be met for a beigeing marker. The remaining conditions, B, C, and I were added based either on results employing adrenergic stimulation in cultured cells or differential expression of the markers in cultured SVF cells and beige adipocytes