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Table 3 Clinical characteristics of diabetic patients according to sex, waist circumference (WC) and BMI

From: Reappraisal of waist circumference cutoff value according to general obesity

Men Non-obese (BMI < 25 kg/m2) Obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2)
WC < 84 cm WC 84~90 cm (intermediate) WC ≥ 90 cm WC < 90 cm WC 90~93 cm (intermediate) WC ≥ 93 cm
N 839 347 56 398 166 309
Age (years) 55.2 ± 10.8 57.5 ± 10.1 60.5 ± 9.1*, ** 52.9 ± 10.0 53.6 ± 11.1 55.1 ± 12.7
Body mass index (kg/m2) 22.1 ± 1.8 23.8 ± 0.9* 24.2 ± 0.7* 26.2 ± 1.0 27.0 ± 1.2* 28.8 ± 2.6*, **
Waist circumference (cm) 78.5 ± 4.6 86.9 ± 1.7* 92.7 ± 2.0*, ** 87.1 ± 2.5 92.0 ± 0.8* 98.5 ± 5.0*, **
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 128.5 ± 17.6 133.3 ± 16.9* 139.4 ± 17.7*, ** 134.3 ± 16.6 135.0 ± 15.1 138.1 ± 15.3*, **
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 83.1 ± 11.0 86.4 ± 10.9* 89.7 ± 11.9*, ** 88.6 ± 11.2 89.0 ± 10.2 89.9 ± 11.6
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 163.2 ± 67.3 158.7 ± 53.2 145.8 ± 47.0 151.8 ± 49.9 149.2 ± 47.7 152.5 ± 53.3
HbA1C (%) 8.5 ± 2.3 8.3 ± 1.8 7.9 ± 1.1 8.0 ± 1.7 7.9 ± 1.4 8.2 ± 1.9
HbA1C (mmol/mol) 69 ± 25 67 ± 20 63 ± 12 64 ± 19 63 ± 15 66 ± 21
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 186.5 ± 39.7 189.2 ± 34.8 193.5 ± 44.7 185.9 ± 37.9 185.8 ± 35.8 190.2 ± 36.5
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 117.8 ± 71.8 153.8 ± 83.2* 164.2 ± 92.5* 154.7 ± 84.6 151.9 ± 69.4 162.3 ± 71.1
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 51.8 ± 14.1 46.4 ± 12.1* 45.4 ± 13.2* 45.5 ± 10.7 46.0 ± 10.5 44.8 ± 10.8
C-IMT (mm) 0.85 ± 0.19 0.88 ± 0.20 0.91 ± 0.20* 0.84 ± 0.18 0.86 ± 0.19 0.89 ± 0.19*
Diabetes duration (year) 8.8 ± 8.1 8.6 ± 7.7 8.4 ± 7.2 6.8 ± 6.4 6.8 ± 7.0 6.5 ± 7.2
Atherosclerosis (%) 362 (43.1) 156 (45.0) 25 (44.6) 175 (44.0) 81 (48.8) 156 (50.5)
Anti-hypertensive medication (%) 179 (21.3) 94 (27.1) 22 (39.3)*** 110 (27.6) 61 (36.7) 120 (38.8)***
Statin (%) 59 (7.0) 36 (10.4) 6 (10.7) 41 (10.3) 23 (13.9) 45 (14.6)
Women Non-obese (BMI < 25 kg/m2) Obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2)
WC < 76 cm WC 76~80 cm (intermediate) WC ≥ 80 cm WC < 80 cm WC 80~87 cm (intermediate) WC ≥ 87 cm
N 506 242 218 69 267 273
Age (years) 57.0 ± 9.5 59.3 ± 9.5* 60.2 ± 7.8* 57.9 ± 10.8 58.9 ± 9.5 59.8 ± 9.0
Body mass index (kg/m2) 21.3 ± 1.9 23.1 ± 1.1* 23.8 ± 0.9*, ** 26.1 ± 1.1 27.0 ± 1.3* 29.2 ± 2.8*, **
Waist circumference (cm) 71.4 ± 4.3 78.4 ± 1.1* 83.9 ± 2.6*, ** 78.6 ± 1.7 84.4 ± 1.9* 92.7 ± 4.6*, **
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 131.6 ± 19.3 137.0 ± 17.1* 138.6 ± 19.9* 138.7 ± 15.6 139.3 ± 17.8 142.8 ± 18.9
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 81.7 ± 11.4 84.3 ± 10.0* 84.8 ± 11.3* 85.5 ± 9.3 85.1 ± 10.8 87.9 ± 11.9
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 154.6 ± 64.0 157.1 ± 58.7 153.5 ± 53.7 143.1 ± 52.8 147.3 ± 51.1 153.0 ± 54.0
HbA1C (%) 8.1 ± 2.1 8.3 ± 1.7 8.4 ± 1.7 7.8 ± 1.8 8.0 ± 1.7 8.3 ± 1.6*
HbA1C (mmol/mol) 66 ± 23 67 ± 19 68 ± 19 62 ± 20 64 ± 19 67 ± 18*
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 192.4 ± 39.4 200.4 ± 41.4* 202.4 ± 37.1* 197.0 ± 34.5 202.4 ± 39.4 203.4 ± 38.5
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 111.0 ± 63.4 146.7 ± 79.3* 153.0 ± 78.4* 129.2 ± 54.5 147.3 ± 73.6 161.4 ± 73.3*
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 58.0 ± 14.7 52.7 ± 13.0* 51.8 ± 12.8* 50.3 ± 11.9 51.7 ± 11.5 48.9 ± 12.7
C-IMT (mm) 0.80 ± 0.18 0.83 ± 0.16* 0.85 ± 0.17* 0.82 ± 0.17 0.85 ± 0.19 0.86 ± 0.17
Diabetes duration (year) 8.5 ± 7.2 8.8 ± 7.1 9.4 ± 7.2 6.3 ± 6.6 7.3 ± 6.8 7.8 ± 6.9
Atherosclerosis (%) 214 (42.3) 116 (47.9) 107 (49.1) 34 (49.3) 132 (49.4) 144 (52.7)
Anti-hypertensive medication (%) 130 (25.7) 94 (38.8) 79 (36.2)*** 23 (33.3) 100 (37.5) 126 (46.2)***
Statin (%) 67 (13.2) 40 (16.5) 36 (16.5) 9 (13.0) 35 (13.1) 42 (15.4)
  1. Data are expressed as the mean ± standard deviation or number
  2. HDL high-density lipoprotein; C-IMT mean carotid artery intima-media thickness
  3. * P<0.05 vs. Group with WC of < 84/76 cm for non-obese men/women or group with WC of < 90/80 cm for obese men/women
  4. ** P<0.05 vs. Intermediate group
  5. *** P<0.05