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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) cases and controls

From: The effect of interaction between Melanocortin-4 receptor polymorphism and dietary factors on the risk of metabolic syndrome

  Without MetS (n = 815) With MetS (n = 815)
  SD   SD
Baseline Age (y)† 43.03 12 43.31 11
 Men 44.4 12 41.8 12
 Women 43.7 11 42.9 11
Current smokers (%) 21.7   20.7  
Physical activity (MET.h/w) 7.46 12 7.34 13
Education level ≥14 years (%) 11.9   9.5  
Baseline BMIa (Kg/m2) 24.0 4 28.1* 4
Obesity (%)b 16.0   47.2*  
Baseline WC (cm) 83.2 10 93.2* 11
Abdominal obesity (%)c 54.0   90.7*  
Baseline systolic BP (mmHg) 112.4 15 121.88* 17
Baseline diastolic BP (mmHg) 73.8 8 79.6* 8
Elevated BP (%)d 20.6   58.3*  
Baseline HDL-C (mg/dl) 58.9 9 44.8 * 10
Low HDL-C (%)e 28.7   82.6*  
Baseline TG (mg/dl) 104.5 42 174.1* 71
High TG (%)f 14.0   68.0*  
Baseline FBG (mg/dl) 87.0 12 109.95* 10
High FBG (%)g 21.4   79.1*  
Energy intake (Kcal/day) 2414 1072 2410 878
Carbohydrate (% of energy) 59.1 8 59.4 9
Total fat (% of energy) 30.1 8 29.9 7.2
Saturated fat (% of energy) 10.1 3 9.8 3
MUFA (% of energy) 10.0 3 10.0 2
PUFA (% of energy) 6.0 2 6.1 2
Allele frequency rs12970134 n (%)
 G 1038 (63)   989 (60)  
 A 592 (36)   641 (39)  
Genotype frequency rs12970134 n (%)
 GG 330 (40.5)   297 (36.4)  
 AG 378 (46.6)   395 (48.5)  
 AA 107 (13.1)   123 (15.1)  
  1. BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, BP blood pressure, HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol, TG triacylglycerol, FBG fasting blood glucose, MUFA mono-unsaturated fatty acids, PUFA poly-unsaturated fatty acids
  2. *P < 0.05; †values are mean unless otherwise listed. abaseline means at first phase or second phase of TLGS. bBMI ≥30 kg/m2, cWC ≥ 95 cm for both genders. dBP ≥130/85 mmHg, eHDL-C <40 mg/dl in men and <50 mg/d in women; fTG ≥ 150 mg/dl, gFBG ≥110 mg/dl