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Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants in the discovery stage

From: Serum metabolic biomarkers distinguish metabolically healthy peripherally obese from unhealthy centrally obese individuals

Variables MUCO MHPO P-value
Age (years) 49.5 ± 4.8 43.4 ± 11.7 0.154
Sex(F/M) 6/4 8/2 0.628a
Anthropometry    
 BMI (kg/m2) 31.8 ± 1.6 32.2 ± 2.1 0.661
 Waist Circumference(cm) 107.6 ± 7.1 88.5 ± 18.2 0.004
 BF % 36.4 ± 8.6 42.4 ± 10.8 0.189
 TF % 41.7 ± 7.1 45.3 ± 9.5 0.343
 AF% 48.8 ± 6.5 51.1 ± 8.6 0.520
 Visceral fat (g) 1885.4 ± 369.2 1087.2 ± 663.2 0.004
 VF% 5.9 ± 1.6 2.7 ± 1.3 0.000
Metabolic Profile    
 SBP (mmHg) 133.9 ± 10.7 127.0 ± 20.3 0.650
 DBP (mmHg) 88.6 ± 5.9 85.6 ± 10.8 0.318
 TG (mmol/L) 2.4 ± 1.2 1.2 ± 0.4 0.025
 HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.0 ± 0.1 1.5 ± 0.2 <0.001
 Glucose (mmol/L) 7.1 ± 2.0 4.9 ± 0.3 <0.001
 Insulin (pmol/L) 281.9 ± 343.8 54.8 ± 22.1 <0.001
 HOMA-IR 14.7 ± 22.3 1.7 ± 0.8 <0.001
Diet and Physical Activity    
 Caloric intake (kcal/day) 2057.3 ± 1093.9 1852. 0 ± 846.5 0.662
 Protein intake (g/day) 91.0 ± 80.7 72.6 ± 22.5 0.591
 FAT intake (g/day) 59.4 ± 29.4 54.5 ± 37.6 0.762
 Carbohydrate (g/day) 277.1 ± 160.6 271.2 ± 147.5 0.936
 Physical activity level 7.8 ± 1.3 7.7 ± 1.8 0.875
  1. All values are means ± SDs. MUCO: metabolically unhealthy central obesity; MHPO: metabolically healthy peripheral obesity; The student’s t-test was set to p < 0.05. Logarithmic transformation was used for the variables that did not have normal distribution (Insulin, glucose, HOMA-IR, TG and Protein intake)
  2. aAnalyzed by chi-square tests by SPSS, statistical significance was set to p < 0.05