Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Clinical characteristics of patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and patients with no retinopathy (no DR)

From: Association of low oleic acid intake with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients: a case–control study

Characteristics No DR (n = 148) DR (n = 146) p value*
Age (years), mean (SD) 57.9 (10.3) 60.5 (8.8) 0.021
Men, % (n) 52.0 (77) 50.0 (73) 0.816
Non Caucasian, % (n) 3.4 (5) 4.1 (6) 0.769
Educational level, % (n)    0.001
  ≤ Primary 60.8 (90) 77.4 (113)  
 Secondary 27.0 (40) 20.5 (30)  
 University 12.2 (18) 2.1 (3)  
Tobacco use, % (n)    0.629
 Never smoker 45.3 (67) 50.7 (74)  
Former smoker 33.8 (50) 29.5 (43)  
Current smoker 20.9 (31) 19.9 (29)  
Physical activity,% (n)    0.045
 Active 66.2 (98) 55.9 (81)  
 Sedentary 33.8 (50) 44.1 (64)  
HbA1c (%), mean (SD) 7.3 (1.2) 8.3 (1.4) < 0.001
Diabetes duration (years), mean (SD) 7.1 (5.5) 14.1 (9.9) < 0.001
Body mass index, Kg/m2, mean (SD) 31.3 (5.1) 32.0 (5.5) 0.273
Waist circumference (cm), mean (SD) 104.2 (11.9) 107.8 (11.9) 0.010
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg), mean (SD) 134.3 (15.5) 145.0 (19.9) < 0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg), mean (SD) 76.5 (10.5) 77.1 (11.1) 0.628
Total cholesterol (mg/dL), mean (SD) 185.7 (36.6) 184.8 (36.1) 0.822
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dL), mean (SD) 48.5 (10.7) 52.1 (15) 0.021
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL), mean (SD) 111 (30.7) 106.9 (30.1) 0.182
Triglycerides (mg/dL) 138.6 (81.8) 140.5 (120) 0.879
Diabetes treatment, % (n)    < 0.001
 Oral agents 64.2 (95) 43.8 (64)  
 Insulin + oral agents 8.8 (13) 41.8 (61)  
 Insulin 2.7 (4) 12.3 (18)  
 Diet only 24.3 (36) 2.1 (3)  
  1. * p-value from Chi-squared or Fisher’s exact tests for comparison of qualitative variables and Student’s t tests for comparison of quantitative variables. SD standard deviation, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin, HDL-cholesterol high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol low-density lipoprotein cholesterol