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Table 2 Mean daily nutrient intake of patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and those without retinopathy (no DR)

From: Association of low oleic acid intake with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients: a case–control study

Nutrient intake No DR (n = 148) DR (n = 146) p-value*
Energy intake (kcal) 2198 (581) 2088 (581) 0.105
Protein (g) 108.3 (30.1) 107.1 (37.4) 0.776
Carbohydrate (g) 232 (76) 222.1 (79.6) 0.275
Fibre (g) 28.3 (8) 26.3 (7.4) 0.032
Total fat (g) 92 (27) 85.7 (28.8) 0.054
Saturated fatty acids (g) 25.2 (9) 23.1 (10) 0.052
Monounsaturated fatty acids (g) 43.6 (12.8) 39.9 (14.2) 0.018
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (g) 16.1 (7.0) 16 (7.7) 0.842
Omega 3 (g) 1.77 (0.71) 1.78 (1.05) 0.921
Omega 6 (g) 14.2 (6.6) 14 (7.2) 0.817
Trans fat (g) 1.13 (0.94) 1.05 (0.97) 0.503
Palmitic acid (g) 15.1 (4.7) 13.9 (5.2) 0.043
Stearic acid (g) 5.92 (2.16) 5.49 (2.83) 0.145
Oleic acid (g) 41.2 (12.2) 37.5 (13.5) 0.016
Linoleic acid (g) 14.1 (6.6) 13.9 (7.2) 0.813
  1. * p-value for Student’s t test. All values are means (SD). SD: standard deviation