Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Association between macronutrient intake and diabetic retinopathy (DR) in case–control study

From: Association of low oleic acid intake with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients: a case–control study

Nutrient intake No DR/DR ORa (95 % CI) p-trendb  ORc (95 % CI) p-trendb
Energy intake (kcal) Per 1000 cals 148/146 0.81 (0.52; 1.26)   0.76 (0.48; 1.23)  
≤ 1849 46/52 1.00 0.364 1.00 0.377
1850 – 2272 47/51 0.77 (0.41; 1.45)   0.80 (0.40; 1.59)  
≥ 2273 55/43 0.75 (0.40; 1.40)   0.73 (0.37; 1.46)  
Protein (g) Per 10 g 148/146 1.03 (0.92; 1.14)   1.03 (0.91;1.17)  
≤ 92.9 48/49 1.00 0.865 1.00 0.645
93.0–117.6 51/48 0.98 (0.51; 1.90)   1.15 (0.56; 2.37)  
≥ 117.7 49/49 1.09 (0.46; 2.56)   1.24 (0.49; 3.16)  
Carbohydrate (g) Per 100 g 148/146 1.49 (0.80; 2.77)   1.58 (0.80; 3.12)  
≤ 189.6 45/53 1.00 0.859 1.00 0.729
189.7–234.0 47/51 0.95 (0.49; 1.82)   1.09 (0.53; 2.23)  
≥ 234.1 56/42 0.93 (0.39; 2.21)   1.18 (0.45; 3.09)  
Fibre (g) Per 10 g 148/146 0.74 (0.47;1.15)   0.83 (0.50; 1.36)  
≤ 23.4 41/56 1.00 0.301 1.00 0.421
23.5–29.2 51/48 0.67 (0.36; 1.27)   0.55 (0.28; 1.11)  
≥ 29.3 56/42 0.69 (0.33; 1.46)   0.76 (0.33; 1.76)  
Total fat (g) Per 10 g 148/146 0.83 (0.69;1.01)   0.86 (0.70; 1.06)  
≤ 76.3 43/54 1.00 0.194 1.00 0.275
76.4 – 96.2 52/46 0.53 (0.27; 1.06)   0.59 (0.27; 1.25)  
≥ 96.3 53/46 0.58 (0.24; 1.39)   0.60 (0.23; 1.55)  
Saturated fatty acids (g) Per 10 g 148/146 0.56 (0.33; 0.95)   0.64 (0.36; 1.14)  
≤ 19.2 45/53 1.00 0.052   0.133
19.3 – 26.6 45/52 0.81 (0.41; 1.61)   0.63 (0.30; 1.33)  
≥ 26.7 58/41 0.42 (0.18; 1.00)   0.49 (0.19; 1.26)  
Mono-unsaturated fatty acids (g) Per 10 g 148/146 0.76 (0.58; 1.01)   0.74 (0.55;1.00)  
≤ 36.0 39/59 1.00 0.050 1.00 0.034
36.1 – 46.2 53/45 0.53 (0.28; 1.01)   0.46 (0.22; 0.93)  
≥ 46.3 56/42 0.49 (0.23; 1.03)   0.42 (0.18; 0.97)  
Poly-unsaturated fatty acids (g) Per 10 g 148/146 1.12 (0.72;1.74)   1.27 (0.80;2.02)  
≤ 12.3 45/53 1.00 0.804 1.00 0.900
12.4 – 16.6 52/46 0.74 (0.38; 1.45)   0.84 (0.41; 1.75)  
≥ 17.7 51/47 0.91 (0.40; 2.07)   1.07 (0.44; 2.64)  
Omega 3 (g) Per 1 g 148/146 1.11 (0.80; 1.55)   0.99 (0.69; 1.41)  
≤1.43 50/48 1.00 0.909 1.00 0.927
1.44 – 1.91 47/51 1.14 (0.61; 2.15)   1.25 (0.62; 2.52)  
≥ 1.92 51/47 0.95 (0.45; 2.00)   0.95 (0.41; 2.16)  
Omega 6 (g) Per 10 g 148/146 1.09 (0.70; 1.71)   1.27 (0.79;2.05)  
≤10.3 43/55 1.00 0.634 1.00 0.851
10.4 – 14.8 56/42 0.61 (0.31; 1.19)   0.77 (0.37; 1.60)  
≥ 14.9 49/49 0.83 (0.37; 1.87)   1.10 (0.45; 2.67)  
Trans fat (g) Per 1 g 148/146 1.03 (0.73; 1.45)   1.12 (0.76; 1.65)  
≤ 0.61 41/56 1.00 0.325 1.00 0.810
0.62 – 1.09 54/45 0.64 (0.34; 1.22)   0.64 (0.32; 1.31)  
≥1.10 53/45 0.70 (0.38; 1.46)   0.93 (0.41; 2.07)  
Palmitic acid (g) Per 10 g 148/146 0.27 (0.09; 0.80)   0.32 (0.10; 1.06)  
≤12.1 44/53 1.00 0.029 1.00 0.077
12.2 – 15.8 45/54 0.82 (0.42; 1.60)   0.67 (0.32; 1.41)  
≥15.9 59/39 0.35 (0.14; 0.87)   0.41 (0.15; 1.01)  
Stearic acid (g) Per 1 g 148/146 0.92 (0.76; 1.12)   0.98 (0.81; 1.20)  
≤4.52 41/56 1.00 0.050 1.00 0.131
4.53 – 6.26 52/47 0.55 (0.28; 1.09)   0.43(0.20; 0.92)  
≥6.27 55/43 0.43 (0.18; 1.00)   0.49 (0.19; 1.25)  
Oleic acid (g) Per 10 g 148/146 0.76 (0.57; 1.00)   0.74 (0.54; 1.01)  
≤32.2 38/59 1.00 0.019 1.00 0.017
32.3 – 43.6 52/47 0.56 (0.29; 1.06)   0.48 (0.23; 0.97)  
≥43.6 58/40 0.41 (0.20; 0.88)   0.37 (0.16; 0.85)  
Linoleic acid (g) Per 10 g 148/146 1.09 (0.70; 1.71)   1.27 (0.79; 2.05)  
≤10.3 43/55 1.00 0.512   0.909
10.4 – 14.7 55/43 0.61 (0.31; 1.19)   0.77 (0.37; 1.61)  
≥14.8 50/48 0.77 (0.35; 1.72)   0.95 (0.39; 2.31)  
  1. aAdjusted for sex, age, diabetes duration and energy intake. b p value for linear trends examined using likelihood ratio tests. cAdjusted for sex, age, diabetes duration, energy intake, educational level, physical activity, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol and diabetes treatment. No DR Diabetic no retinopathy, DR diabetic retinopathy, OR Odds ratio