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Table 4 Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95 % confidence interval (CI) of diabetic retinopathy (DR) by nutrient intake according to duration of diabetes

From: Association of low oleic acid intake with diabetic retinopathy in type 2 diabetic patients: a case–control study

  All cases (148/146) Duration of diabetes≤ 8 years (102/53) Duration of diabetes> 8 years (46/93)
Nutrient intake ORa (95 % CI) ORa (95 % CI) ORa (95 % CI)
Energy intake (kcal) Per 1000 cal 0.76 (0.48; 1.23) 0.76 (0.41; 1.39) 0.85 (0.39; 1.86)
Protein (g) Per 10 g 1.03 (0.91; 1.17) 1.05 (0.90; 1.21) 1.07 (0.82; 1.39)
Carbohydrate (g) Per 100 g 1.58 (0.80; 3.12) 0.86 (0.34; 2.20) 3.05 (0.96; 9.72)
Fibre (g) Per 10 g 0.83 (0.50;1.36) 0.42 (0.19; 0.93) 1.44 (0.69; 3.03)
Total fat (g) Per 10 g 0.86 (0.70; 1.06) 1.08 (0.80; 1.47) 0.70 (0.51; 0.97)
Saturated fatty acids (g) Per 10 g 0.64 (0.36; 1.14) 0.83 (0.40; 1.72) 0.43 (0.18; 1.05)
Mono-unsaturated fatty acids (g) Per 10 g 0.74 (0.55; 1.00) 1.17 (0.76; 1.80) 0.49 (0.30; 0.81)
Poly-unsaturated fatty acids (g) Per 10 g 1.27 (0.80; 2.02) 1.07 (0.54; 2.11) 1.42 (0.69; 2.91)
Omega 3 (g) Per 1 g 0.99 (0.69; 1.41) 1.23 (0.71; 2.14) 0.59 (0.25; 1.39)
Omega 6 (g) Per 10 g 1.27 (0.79; 2.05) 1.01 (0.50; 2.04) 1.50 (0.71; 3.17)
Trans fat (g) Per 1 g 1.12 (0.76; 1.65) 1.24 (0.67; 2.30) 0.95 (0.54; 1.67)
Palmitic acid (g) Per 10 g 0.33 (0.10;1.06) 1.03 (0.23; 4.71) 0.10 (0.01; 0.62)
Stearic acid (g) Per 1 g 0.98 (0.81;1.20) 1.05 (0.84; 1.32) 0.80 (0.55; 1.17)
Oleic acid (g) Per 10 g 0.74 (0.54;1.01) 1.16 (0.74; 1.80) 0.49 (0.29; 0.81)
Linoleic acid (g) Per 10 g 1.27 (0.79;2.05) 1.01 (0.50; 2.03) 1.50 (0.71; 3.18)
  1. aAdjusted for sex, age, diabetes duration, energy intake, educational level, physical activity, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, HDL-cholesterol and diabetes treatment. CI interval confidence, OR Odds ratio