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Table 4 Metabolic changes in genetic models of MetS

From: Animal models of metabolic syndrome: a review

Strain Model Mutation/deficiency Abnormalities/metabolic changes References
Leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice Obesity, type II diabetes Autosomal recessive mutation on leptin gene (chromosome 6) (a) Obese & increased body weight (Age: 4 weeks) (b) Hyperinsulinemia & hyperglycemia (Age: 4 weeks) (c) Impaired glucose tolerance (Age: 12 weeks) (d) Reduced blood pressure (e) Does not develop dyslipidemia [65, 121, 122]
Leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice Obesity, type II diabetes Autosomal recessive mutation on leptin receptor gene (chromosome 4) (a) Obese & increased body weight (Age: 6 weeks) (b) High fasting blood glucose (Age: 8 weeks) (c) Hyperinsulinemia & impaired glucose tolerance (Age: 12 weeks) (d) Unchanged blood pressure (e) Increased triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and free fatty acid (Age: 13 weeks) [66, 67]
Zucker fatty (ZF) rat Metabolic syndrome Missense mutation on leptin receptor gene (a) Obese (Age: 3-5 weeks) (b) Hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance (Age: 3 weeks) (c) Hypertension (Age: 12 weeks) (d) Hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia [71]
Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rat Metabolic syndrome Non-functional leptin receptor (a) Obese (Age: 3–5 weeks) (b) Hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia (Age: 13–15 weeks) (c) Mild hypertension (Age: 12–14 weeks) (d) Hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia (Age: 20 weeks) [123]
DahlS.Z-Lepr fa /Lepr fa(DS/obese) rat Metabolic syndrome - (a) Obese (Age: 18 weeks) (b) Hyperinsulinemia (Age: 18 weeks) (c) Unchanged serum glucose concentration (d) Hypertension (Age: 11–12 weeks) (e) Hypercholesterolemia & hypertriglyceridemia (Age: 18 weeks) [74, 75]
Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat Type II diabetes Leptin resistance (a) Non-obese (b) Hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance & mild hyperglycemia (Age: 4 weeks) (c) Hyperlipidemia (Age: 8 weeks) (d) Unchanged blood pressure (Age: 14 months) [76, 78, 124, 125]
Spontaneous Hypertensive rat Hypertension - (a) Hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance (Age: 12 weeks) (b) Severe hypertension (Age: 4 weeks) [82, 126]
Obese Spontaneous Hypertensive rat (Koletsky rat) Metabolic syndrome Nonsense mutation of leptin receptor (a) Obese, increased abdominal fat (Age: 5 weeks) (b) Hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance (Age: 16–18 weeks) (c) Normal fasting blood glucose (d) Severe hypertension (Age: 12 weeks) (e) Hyperlipidemia (Age: 16–18 weeks) [69, 127]
The POUND mouse™ Pre-diabetes/metabolic syndrome Mutation in leptin receptor (deletion of axon 2 on chromosome 4) (a) Obese (Age: 4 weeks) (b) Hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia (Age: 18 weeks) (c) Increased leptin levels (Age: 17–18 weeks), (d) Hypercholesterolemia (Age: 14 weeks) [85, 128]