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Table 3 Summary of experimental studies assessing the effects of mixed-nutrient foods on glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion and associated outcomes

From: Nutritional modulation of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion: a review

Studies Subjects Dietary intervention Main outcomes measured
N Characteristics Food Duration
Rebello 2013 [151] 48 〉 Healthya Oatmealb (66.8 g) 4 h ↑ Fullness
↓ Hunger
↓ Desire to eat
↓ Prospective food consumption
Rebello 2016 [152] 48 〉 Healthy Oatmealb (66.8 g) 4 h ↑ Fullness
↓ Hunger
↓ Desire to eat
↓ Prospective food consumption
↓ Energy intake at the next meal
Freeland 2010 [165] 28 〉 Hyperinsulinemia High-fiber cereal (24 g/day) 1 year ↑ Acetate and butyrate blood concentrations
↑ GLP-1 blood concentrations
Nilsson 2015 [166] 20 〉 Healthy Barley kernel-based breadc
(100 g of available starch per day)
3 days ↑ PYY postprandial blood concentrations
↑ GLP-1 fasting blood concentrations
↑ Fasting and postprandial breath hydrogen concentrations
↑ Total SCFAs and acetate fasting blood concentrations
↓ Blood glucose postprandial concentrations
↓ Insulin postprandial blood concentrations
Jenkins 2006 [156] 15 〉 Healthy Raw almondsb (60.0 g) 4 h ↓ Blood glucose postprandial concentrations
↓ Insulin postprandial blood concentrations
↓ Oxydative damage to proteins measured in blood serum
Josse 2007 [167] 9 〉 Healthy Raw almondsc
(30, 60 and 90 g)
4 h ↓ Blood glucose postprandial concentrationsd
Jenkins 2008 [157] 27 〉 Hyperlipidemia Raw almonds-
(37.0 and 73.0 g)
1 month ↓ 24-hour insulin secretion
Mori 2011 [159] 14 〉 Impaired glucose tolerance Raw almondsc (42.5 g) 8 h ↓ Blood glucose concentrations
↑ Insulin blood concentrations
↓ Non esterified fatty acid blood concentrations after a second meal
↑ Fullness
Kendall 2011 [153] 10 〉 Healthy Pistachiosb
(28.0, 56.0 and 84.0 g)
2 h ↓ Blood glucose concentrationsd
Kendall 2014 [154] 20 〉 Metabolic syndrome Pistachiosc (85.0 g) 3 h ↑ GLP-1 postprandial blood concentrations
↑ Glucose-insulinotropic peptide postprandial blood concentrations
↓ Blood glucose postprandial concentrations
↑ Insulin postprandial blood concentrations
Reis 2013 [168] 30 〉 Obese women (a) Whole peanutsc (42.5 g)
(b) Peanut butterc (42.5 g)
8 h ↓ Blood glucose concentrations after second standard isocaloric meal (b)
↑ Insulin postprandial blood concentrations (a,b)
↓ Non esterified fatty acid blood concentrations after second meal (b)
↑ PYY postprandial blood concentrations (b)
↓ Desire to eat following the second meal (a,b)
Parham 2014 [155] 48 〉 Type 2 diabetes Pistachiod (50.0 g per day) 12 weeks ↓ Fasting blood glucose concentrations
↓ Percentage of glycated blood haemoglobin
↓ Systolic blood pressure
↓ Body mass index
↓ C-reactive protein blood concentrations
Ratliff 2010 [160] 21 〉 Healthy men Whole eggb (3) 24 h ↓ Blood glucose postprandial concentrations
↓ Ghrelin postprandial blood concentrations
↓ Insulin postprandial blood concentrations
↓ Hunger
↑ Satisfaction
↓ Energy intake at lunch and over 24 hours
Pombo-Rodrigues 2011 [162] 31 〉 Healthy Whole eggsb (2) 4 h ↑ Fullness
↓ Desire to eat
↓ Prospective food consumption
Vander Wal 2005
[161]
30 〉 Overweight women Whole eggsb (2) 36 h ↑ Satiety
↓ Energy intake at the next meal and over 24 and 36 hours
Liu 2015
[163]
28 〉 Healthy children and adolescents Eggsb 3 h ↑ PYY postprandial blood concentrations
Wien 2013 [164] 26 〉 Overweight Fresh avocadob
(50.0 to 90.0 g)
3 h ↓ Insulin postprandial blood concentrations
↓ Desire to eat
↑ Satisfaction
  1. GLP-1 Glucagon-like peptide-1, PYY Peptide tyrosine-tyrosine, SCFAs Short-chain fatty acids
  2. a Unless otherwise mentioned, study samples include adults of both sexes
  3. b Isocaloric test and control meals, however, not marched for macronutrient contents
  4. c Test and control meals matched for carbohydrate content only
  5. d In a dose-dependent matter