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Table 1 Demographics and characteristics of all randomized participants

From: Efficacy of a novel formulation of L-Carnitine, creatine, and leucine on lean body mass and functional muscle strength in healthy older adults: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study

  L-Carnitine-combination N = 14 L-Carnitine N = 14 Placebo N = 14 P Valueσ
Age (Years)
 Mean ± SD 61.1 ± 4.0 (14) 61.1 ± 4.0 (14) 57.2 ± 2.7 (14) 0.006§
Gender [n (%)]
 Female 9 (64%) 8 (57%) 10 (71%) 0.919
 Male 5 (36%) 6 (43%) 4 (29%)
Alcohol Use [n (%)]
 Daily 2 (14%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0.787
 None 4 (29%) 3 (21%) 4 (29%)
 Occasionally 4 (29%) 6 (43%) 6 (43%)
 Weekly 4 (29%) 5 (36%) 4 (29%)
Smoking Status [n (%)]
 Ex-Smoker 0 (0%) 4 (29%) 2 (14%) 0.138
 Non-Smoker 14 (100%) 10 (71%) 12 (86%)
Race [n (%)]
American 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 1 (7%) 0.904
 Eastern European White 1 (7%) 1 (7%) 0 (0%)
 North American Indian/Aboriginal 1 (7%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
 South American 1 (7%) 0 (0%) 1 (7%)
 Western European White 11 (79%) 13 (93%) 12 (86%)
Ethnicity [n (%)]
 Hispanic or Latino 1 (7%) 0 (0%) 1 (7%) 1.000
 Not Hispanic or Latino 13 (93%) 14 (100%) 13 (93%)  
 Regularly Exercise [n (%)]
 No 9 (64%) 10 (71%) 5 (36%) 0.218
 Yes 5 (36%) 4 (29%) 9 (64%)
Weight Change in Past 3 Months [n (%)]
 Gain 2 (14%) 0 (14%) 0 (0%) 0.679
 Loss 1 (7%) 1 (7%) 2 (14%)
 No Change 11 (79%) 13 (93%) 12 (86%)
Weight (Kg)
 Mean ± SD 76.7 ± 13.3 (14) 73.0 ± 12.9 (14) 73.7 ± 9.8 (14) 0.760
BMI (Kg/m2)
 Mean ± SD 27.71 ± 2.75 (14) 25.92 ± 3.06 (14) 26.57 ± 2.56 (14) 0.241
  1. N, number, SD standard deviation, Min minimum, Max maximum, n, number, % percentage
  2. §Between-group comparison was made using ANOVA
  3. σBetween-group comparisons were made using Fisher’s Exact Test
  4. Supplement groups with differing letter superscripts are significantly different
  5. Probability values P ≤ 0.05 are statistically significant