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Table 3 SF-36 questionnaire results at baseline and at end of the study for all participants

From: Efficacy of a novel formulation of L-Carnitine, creatine, and leucine on lean body mass and functional muscle strength in healthy older adults: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled study

  L-Carnitine-combination L-Carnitine Placebo P ValueΔ P Value¤
Mean + SD (n)
Within Group P Value
Mean + SD (n)
Within Group P Value
Mean + SD (n)
Within Group P Value
  
Physical Functioning
 Baseline (Week 0) 81.1 ± 19.0 (14) 86.4 ± 15.2 (11) 88.6 ± 16.2 (14)
 Visit 2 (Week 8) 80.7 ± 13.4 (14) 85.9 ± 12.0 (11) 88.6 ± 14.6 (14)
 Change from Baseline to Week 8 −0.4 ± 14.9 (14)
P = 0.720
−0.5 ± 7.2 (11)
P = 0.890
0.0 ± 8.3 (14)
P = 1.000
0.642 0.487
Role Functioning/Physical
 Baseline (Week 0) 90.2 ± 17.1 (14) 95 ± 10 (11) 90.2 ± 19.7 (14)
 Visit 2 (Week 8) 92.9 ± 16.0 (14) 90.9 ± 23.1 (11) 93.8 ± 12.7 (14)
 Change from Baseline to Week 8 2.7 ± 25.6 (14)
P = 0.833
−5 ± 15 (11)
P = 1.000
3.6 ± 19.9 (14)
P = 0.588
0.442 0.876
Role Functioning/Emotional
 Baseline (Week 0) 97.6 ± 6.1 (14) 100.0 ± 0.0 (11) 96.4 ± 13.4 (14)
 Visit 2 (Week 8) 95.2 ± 12.1 (14) 87.9 ± 27.0 (11) 100.0 ± 0.0 (14)
 Change from Baseline to Week 8 −2.4 ± 14.4 (14)
P = 0.577
−12.1 ± 27.0 (11)
P = 0.346
3.6 ± 13.4 (14)
P = 1.000
0.081 0.655
Vitality
 Baseline (Week 0) 58.2 ± 20.1 (14) 68.2 ± 17.4 (11) 68.9 ± 21.0 (14)
 Visit 2 (Week 8) 57.5 ± 19.3 (14) 77.3 ± 11.7 (11) 68.6 ± 16.5 (14)
 Change from Baseline to Week 8 −0.7 ± 15.8 (14)
P = 0.691
9.1 ± 10.0 (11)
P= 0.025
−0.4 ± 19.6 (14)
P = 0.780
0.081 0.833
Emotional Well-Being
 Baseline (Week 0) 76.3 ± 14.2 (14) 86.5 ± 7.4 (11) 84.9 ± 15.2 (14)
 Visit 2 (Week 8) 81.1 ± 10.2 (14) 87.3 ± 12.2 (11) 84.3 ± 12.8 (14)
Change from Baseline to Week 8 4.9 ± 12.8 (14)
P = 0.261
0.7 ± 10.1 (11)
P = 0.509
−0.6 ± 13.8 (14)
P = 0.670
0.260 0.305
Social Functioning
 Baseline (Week 0) 48.2 ± 8.3 (14) 50.0 ± 5.6 (11) 51.8 ± 4.5 (14)
 Visit 2 (Week 8) 56.2 ± 19.5 (14) 52.3 ± 9.4 (11) 50.0 ± 0.0 (14)
 Change from Baseline to Week 8 8.0 ± 20.0 (14)
P = 0.202
2.3 ± 10.9 (11)
P p = 0.572
−1.8 ± 4.5 (14)
P = 0.346
0.315 0.175
Pain
 Baseline (Week 0) 77.7 ± 15.1 (14) 83.4 ± 12.3 (11) 84.1 ± 18.3 (14)
 Visit 2 (Week 8) 78.0 ± 20.6 (14) 83.0 ± 15.4 (11) 84.8 ± 14.6 (14)
 Change from Baseline to Week 8 0.4 ± 23.3 (14)
P = 0.944
−0.5 ± 13.0 (11)
P = 1.000
0.7 ± 11.0 (14)
P = 1.000
0.673 0.744
General Health
 Baseline (Week 0) 75.7 ± 16.9 (14) 85.9 ± 14.3 (11) 85.4 ± 14.3 (14)
 Visit 2 (Week 8) 77.5 ± 13.7 (14) 86.0 ± 8.2 (11) 83.2 ± 12.3 (14)
 Change from Baseline toWeek 8 1.8 ± 11.9 (14)
P = 0.662
0.1 ± 12.2 (11)
P = 0.733
−2.1 ± 11.4 (14)
P = 0.892
0.822 0.778
  1. N number, SD standard deviation
  2. ΔBetween-group comparisons for placebo and L-Carnitine were made using the Mann-Whitney U test
  3. ¤Between-group comparisons for placebo and L-Carnitine-Combination were made using the Mann-Whitney U test
  4. Within-group comparisons were made using the signed-rank test
  5. Probability values P ≤ 0.05 are statistically significant
  6. The bold data represents a significant P value (P>0.05)