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Table 2 Biochemical characterization of the population according to nutrition status defined by percent body fat cutoffs [9, 28, 29]

From: Associations among osteocalcin, leptin and metabolic health in children ages 9–13 years in the United States

   Non-obese (n = 145) Obese (n = 156) p-value
n Mean (SEM) Mean (SEM)
 Leptin (ng/mL) 288 5.1 (0.3) 16.9 (0.8) <0.0001
 ucOC (ng/mL) 167 30.6 (2.1) 30.8 (1.9) 0.8644
 Total osteocalcin (ng/mL) 286 36.2 (1.1) 31.3 (0.8) 0.0002
 Glucose (mg/dL) 300 88.8 (0.6) 89.5 (0.5) 0.3608
 Insulin (μU/mL) 301 17.1 (0.6) 23.6 (1.0) <0.0001
 HOMA-β 300 256.2 (10.8) 355.8 (25.7) <0.0001
 HOMA-IR 300 3.8 (0.1) 5.2 (0.2) <0.0001
  1. Standard Error of the Mean; Body mass index; Undercarboxylated osteocalcin; Homeostasis Model of Assessment Estimate of β Cell Function; Homeostasis Model of Assessment Estimate of Insulin Resistance. Results of Student’s T-test. All variables were analyzed after logarithmic transformation
  2. The values that are italic are p-values indicating significance