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Table 2 Physical performance and physiological parameters (indirect calorimetry, cycling test, handgrip strength)

From: Impact of a 6-week non-energy-restricted ketogenic diet on physical fitness, body composition and biochemical parameters in healthy adults

  Unit PRE POST P-value
Indirect calorimetry
 REE kcal/day 1523 ± 329 1430 ± 338 0.038
 RERrest   0.86 (0.75–1.14) 0.79 (0.69–0.85) <0.001
Spiroergometry, EKG and Borg scale
 VO2peak (absolute) l/min 2.55 ± 0.68 2.49 ± 0.69 0.023
 VO2peak (relative) ml/min*kg 36.7 ± 8.5 36.8 ± 9.0 0.808
 VT1 l/min 1.23 (0.79–2.83) 1.19 (0.73–2.69) 0.233
 Pmax W 241 ± 57 231 ± 57 <0.001
 HRmax 1/min 176 ± 14 177 ± 14 0.268
 HRrest 1/min 57 ± 7 59 ± 7 0.008
 Spinning speed rpm 60 (58–65) 60 (58–64) 0.274
 Rating of perceived exertion   17 (13–19) 18 (14–19) 0.052
Questionnaires
 Physical activitya kcal/week 2575 (615–12915) 2464 (625–13760) 0.457
MET-hours/week 34.6 (8.5–156.1) 36.7 (8.5–170.4) 0.264
Handgrip strength
 Maximum strength kg 40.1 ± 8.8 41.0 ± 9.1 0.047
  1. Abbreviations: HR heart rate, MET metabolic equivalent of task, VO 2 oxygen consumption, Pmax Peak power, REE 24-h resting energy expenditure, RER respiratory exchange ratio, rpm revolutions per minute, VT ventilatory threshold, W watt
  2. aPhysical activity is expressed by the rate of energy expenditure in MET based on the reference data published by Ainsworth et al. [25]. One MET for a reference adult is approximately 1 kcal/kg*h