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Table 1 Subjects’ characteristics

From: Positive association between musclin and insulin resistance in obesity: evidence of a human study and an animal experiment

Variable Lean
(n = 44)
Overweight/obese
(n = 73)
P value
Age (years) 51.75 ± 13.8 47.89 ± 9.8 0.08
Male/female 21(47.73%)/23 48(65.75%)/25 0.055
T2DM history 28(63.64%) 48(65.75%) 0.816
Current smoker (%) 9(20.45%) 26(35.62%) 0.083
Alcohol use (%) 14(31.82%) 31(42.47%) 0.252
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.9 ± 0.04 0.9 ± 0.05 0.491
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 127.36 ± 17.73 132.05 ± 16.73 0.154
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 82.59 ± 9.43 87.68 ± 9.02 0.004**
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.06 ± 1.01 5.36 ± 1.16 0.155
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.69 ± 1.41 2.55 ± 2.24 0.025*
High-density lipoprotein (mmol/L) 1.33 ± 0.29 1.26 ± 0.27 0.157
Low-density lipoprotein (mmol/L) 3.07 ± 0.84 3.2 ± 0.81 0.407
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) 7.28 ± 3.29 8.18 ± 3.7 0.186
Fasting serum insulin (mmol/L) 8.46 ± 5.92 13.44 ± 8.70 0.001**
HOMA-IR (μIU x mol/L) 3.02 ± 3.94 5.42 ± 5.19 0.009**
Hemoglobin A1c (%) 6.94 ± 2.32 7.54 ± 2.28 0.173
Musclin(ng/L) 80.39 ± 16.35 89.49 ± 19.00 0.009**
  1. Data are presented as the mean ± standard deviation or as proportions (%)
  2. *P < 0.05 vs. controls, **P < 0.01 vs. controls
  3. T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance