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Table 1 Participant Characteristics

From: Season and vitamin D status are independently associated with glucose homeostasis in pregnancy

   Season at first antenatal visit
Characteristic Total Group
(n = 334)
Winter
(n = 166)
Summer
(n = 168)
P a
Age (years) 33.0 (3.9) 32.8 (3.7) 33.2 (4.0) 0.409
Gestation at first antenatal visit (weeks) 12.8 (2.3) 12.7 (2.3) 12.9 (2.2) 0.556
BMI at first antenatal visit  
 Mean (SD), (kg/m2) 26.3 (4.5) 26.3 (4.4) 26.2 (4.7) 0.948
 Underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m2) [n (%)] 2 (0.6) 1 (0.6) 1 (0.6) 0.953
 Normal (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2) [n (%)] 153 (45.8) 78 (46.4) 75 (45.2)
 Overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2) [n (%)] 125 (37.4) 60 (35.7) 65 (39.2)
 Obese (BMI >30.0 kg/m2) [n (%)] 52 (15.6) 27 (16.1) 25 (15.1)
Smoking at baseline [n (%)] 7 (2.1) 4 (2.4) 3 (1.8) 0.697
Intervention group [n (%)] 171 (51.2) 84 (50.6) 87 (50.9) 0.829
Ethnicity: Caucasian [n (%)] 331 (99.1) 166 (100.0) 165 (98.2) 0.250
Achieved 3rd level education [n (%)] 177 (53.0) 87 (52.6) 90 (53.6) 0.940
Birth weight (g) 4065.9 (470.0) 4043.1 (434.4) 4088.4 (503.0) 0.382
  1. Data are presented as mean (SD) unless otherwise stated
  2. aComparison between winter and summer