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Table 2 Maternal 25OHD and markers of glucose metabolism in early and late pregnancy among the total group and categorised by season of first antenatal visit

From: Season and vitamin D status are independently associated with glucose homeostasis in pregnancy

   Season at first antenatal visit
  Total Group
(n = 334)
Winter
(n = 166)
Summer
(n = 168)
P d
25OHD early <30 nmol/L a 90 (26.9) 64 (38.6) 26 (15.5) <0.001
25OHD early <50 nmol/L a 205 (61.4) 121 (72.9) 84 (50.0) 0.002
25OHD 28 weeks <30 nmol/L a 111 (33.2) 56 (33.7) 55 (32.7) 0.662
25OHD 28 weeks <50 nmol/L a 211 (63.2) 103 (62.0) 107 (63.7) 0.999
HOMA-IR early b 2.1 (2.6) 2.4 (2.8) 1.7 (2.0) 0.004
HOMA-IR 28 weeks b 2.8 (3.15) 2.9 (3.4) 2.6 (2.6) 0.064
Insulin early (μU/mL) b 11.3 (12.3) 12.8 (13.1) 9.3 (11.1) 0.002
Insulin 28 weeks (μU/mL) b 14.4 (15.6) 14.6 (16.8) 14.1 (11.8) 0.108
Fasting glucose early (mmol/L) c 4.48 (0.35) 4.47 (0.33) 4.49 (0.37) 0.566
Fasting glucose 28 weeks (mmol/L) c 4.46 (0.46) 4.49 (0.45) 4.42 (0.46) 0.157
1-h GCT 28 weeks (mmol/L) c 6.48 (1.44) 6.47 (1.39) 6.50 (1.48) 0.864
  1. Data presented as an (%), bmedian (interquartile range), cmean (SD)
  2. dComparison between winter and summer