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Table 4 Multiple Linear Regression analysis and associated percentage difference in markers of glucose metabolism (Model 1 unadjusted, and Model 2 adjusted)

From: Season and vitamin D status are independently associated with glucose homeostasis in pregnancy

   Model 1 – Unadjusted model Model 2 – Final Adjusted model
Dependent Variable Independent variable (early pregnancy) % ∆a B 95% CI P Model P % ∆a B 95% CI P Model P
HOMA-IR early Winter 32.8% 0.28 (0.08, 0.49) 0.008 0.008 46.72% 0.38 (0.15, 0.62) 0.001 <0.001
  25OHD <30 nmol/L 11.6% 0.11 (−0.11, 0.32) 0.325   11.64% 0.11 (−0.14, 0.36) 0.382  
HOMA-IR 28 weeks’ Winter 29.7% 0.26 (0.04, 0.49) 0.024 0.051 53.70% 0.43 (0.17, 0.69) 0.002 0.001
  25OHD <30 nmol/L 4.1% 0.04 (−0.20, 0.28) 0.753   3.00% 0.03 (−0.25, 0.31) 0.837  
Insulin early (μU/mL) Winter 32.4% 0.28 (0.08, 0.48) 0.007 0.010 47.57% 0.39 (0.16, 0.62) 0.001 <0.001
  25OHD <30 nmol/L 8.3% 0.08 (−0.14, 0.29) 0.474   8.16% 0.08 (−0.17, 0.32) 0.530  
Insulin 28 weeks (μU/mL) Winter 25.9% 0.23 (0.01, 0.46) 0.041 0.102 49.53% 0.40 (0.14, 0.66) 0.003 0.002
  25OHD <30 nmol/L 1.0% 0.01 (−0.22, 0.24) 0.927   −0.17% 0.00 (−0.28, 0.28) 0.991  
Fasting glucose early (mmol/L) Winter   −0.02 (−0.11, 0.06) 0.583 0.713   −0.04 (−0.13, 0.06) 0.435 0.021
  25OHD <30 nmol/L   0.03 (−0.06, 0.13) 0.469    0.06 (−0.04, 0.16) 0.257  
Fasting glucose 28 weeks (mmol/L) Winter   0.07 (−0.04, 0.18) 0.185 0.118   0.13 (0.00, 0.26) 0.045 0.015
  25OHD <30 nmol/L   0.08 (−0.04, 0.19) 0.208    0.15 (0.01, 0.29) 0.041  
1-h GCT 28 weeks (mmol/L) Winter   0.04 (−0.31, 0.39) 0.806 0.946   0.02 (−0.41, 0.45) 0.930 0.688
  25OHD <30 nmol/L   0.03 (−0.35, 0.41) 0.873    0.02 (−0.45, 0.50) 0.923  
  1. a % difference in metabolic marker
  2. Model 1: model not controlled for confounders. Model 2: model controlled for BMI (kg/m2), education > secondary school, being part of the ROLO study intervention group, early-pregnancy energy (kcal), early-pregnancy protein (g), early-pregnancy fat (g), moderate-vigorous activity, well-being score and dietary supplements