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Table 4 Changes in serum biomarkers of glucoregulation after the consumption of either control (CON) or almond (ALM) diet for 12 weeksa

From: Almonds ameliorate glycemic control in Chinese patients with better controlled type 2 diabetes: a randomized, crossover, controlled feeding trial

  CON ALM  
Pre Post Pre Post P-value b
All subjects (n = 33)
 HbA1c (%) 7.47 ± 1.12 7.45 ± 0.80 7.51 ± 0.97 7.39 ± 1.05 0.626
 Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl) 146.5 ± 37.9 139.6 ± 33.1 140.7 ± 30.9 140.3 ± 36.8 0.587
 Fasting serum insulin (mU/l) 11.2 ± 4.9 12.3 ± 6.0 10.4 ± 4.6 11.8 ± 5.7 0.782
 HOMA-IR 4.00 ± 2.08 4.24 ± 2.70 3.58 ± 1.75 3.98 ± 1.98 0.833
 C-peptide (ng/ml) 2.64 ± 1.12 2.60 ± 1.25 2.48 ± 0.94 2.73 ± 1.22 0.082
 Postprandial glucose AUC (mg/dl∙min) 37,424 ± 7681 36,415 ± 7250 35,768 ± 7379 37,706 ± 8490 0.110
 Postprandial insulin AUC (mU/l∙min) 3975 ± 2353 4690 ± 3327 4055 ± 2964 4345 ± 2791 0.557
Subjects with HbA1c ≤8 (n = 27)
 HbA1c (%) 7.07 ± 0.58 7.23 ± 0.63 7.18 ± 0.64 7.01 ± 0.62 0.043
 Fasting serum glucose (mg/dl) 134.3 ± 24.8 137.4 ± 26.7 132.8 ± 24.8 129.3 ± 25.6 0.011
 Fasting serum insulin (mU/l) 11.2 ± 5.0 12.9 ± 6.4 10.8 ± 4.8 12.0 ± 5.7 0.660
 HOMA-IR 3.73 ± 2.13 4.35 ± 2.92 3.56 ± 1.80 3.83 ± 2.05 0.416
 C-peptide (ng/ml) 2.62 ± 1.07 2.70 ± 1.26 2.53 ± 0.95 2.76 ± 1.23 0.351
 Postprandial glucose AUC (mg/dl∙min) 34,997 ± 5591 35,921 ± 6404 34,133 ± 6477 35,637 ± 7177 0.795
 Postprandial insulin AUC (mU/l∙min) 4051 ± 2424 5029 ± 3487 4284 ± 3143 4508 ± 2760 0.377
  1. aData are presented as mean ± SD
  2. bP-values illustrate significant difference between post ALM and post CON values, tested using a repeated-measures ANOVA analysis, followed by LSMEANS test