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Table 6 Changes in biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress after the consumption of either control (CON) or almond (ALM) diet for 12 weeksa

From: Almonds ameliorate glycemic control in Chinese patients with better controlled type 2 diabetes: a randomized, crossover, controlled feeding trial

  CON ALM  
Pre Post Pre Post P-value b
All subjects (n = 33)
 hsCRP (mg/dl) 0.20 ± 0.19 0.29 ± 0.29 0.24 ± 0.24 0.30 ± 0.29 0.796
 sE-Selectin (ng/ml) 43.4 ± 20.7 44.0 ± 20.2 46.1 ± 18.0 42.3 ± 15.5 0.121
 ICAM-1 (ng/ml) 223.2 ± 77.4 229.2 ± 72.2 240.1 ± 89.1 230.7 ± 80.9 0.225
 Endothelin-1 (pg/ml) 0.98 ± 0.36 1.14 ± 0.41 1.04 ± 0.39 1.16 ± 0.42 0.889
 Nitric oxidde (μmol/l) 59.6 ± 35.8 72.1 ± 55.3 62.5 ± 40.9 50.6 ± 26.7 0.048
 Protein carbonyl (nmol/mg) 1.00 ± 0.54 1.06 ± 0.68 1.00 ± 0.65 0.72 ± 0.56 0.151
 Oxidized LDL (U/l) 32.8 ± 9.9 34.8 ± 10.9 33.9 ± 10.9 35.1 ± 9.9 0.736
 Urinary isoprostanes (ng/mg creatinine) 12.2 ± 6.2 14.2 ± 9.2 11.9 ± 4.2 12.2 ± 4.7 0.200
 α-Tocopherol (μmol/l) 8.51 ± 3.37 9.24 ± 5.45 8.86 ± 4.43 9.57 ± 5.11 0.853
Subjects with HbA1c ≤8 (n = 27)
 hsCRP (mg/dl) 0.18 ± 0.19 0.29 ± 0.29 0.23 ± 0.24 0.30 ± 0.30 0.789
 sE-Selectin (ng/ml) 42.3 ± 21.7 44.5 ± 21.5 45.7 ± 18.7 41.0 ± 15.4 0.026
 ICAM-1 (ng/ml) 222.0 ± 78.6 229.1 ± 75.5 241.1 ± 92.8 231.5 ± 83.7 0.263
 Endothelin-1 (pg/ml) 1.01 ± 0.36 1.11 ± 0.39 1.07 ± 0.38 1.16 ± 0.40 0.802
 NO (μmol/l) 62.4 ± 37.1 71.2 ± 52.1 62.1 ± 41.4 50.3 ± 28.0 0.048
 Protein carbonyl (nmol/mg) 1.13 ± 0.84 1.05 ± 0.67 0.96 ± 0.64 0.75 ± 0.59 0.242
 Oxidized LDL (U/l) 31.5 ± 10.1 33.8 ± 10.8 32.8 ± 11.1 33.9 ± 10.2 0.653
 Urinary isoprostanes (ng/mg creatinine) 12.7 ± 6.6 15.2 ± 9.8 11.7 ± 3.8 12.0 ± 4.9 0.131
 α-Tocopherol (μmol/l) 8.23 ± 2.99 8.52 ± 2.83 8.25 ± 2.52 8.96 ± 3.11 0.551
  1. aData are presented as mean ± SD
  2. bP-values illustrate significant difference between post ALM and post CON values, tested using a repeated-measures ANOVA analysis, followed by LSMEANS test