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Table 2 Comparison of metabolites concentrations and enzyme activities based on fatty acid ratios between the three baseline states in groups 1, 2 and 3

From: Serum metabolites in non-alcoholic fatty-liver disease development or reversion; a targeted metabolomic approach within the PREDIMED trial

   Baseline 3 vs. Baseline 2   Baseline 3 vs. Baseline 1   Baseline 2 vs. Baseline 1  
  ANOVA (p) Tukey’s HSD (p-value) log2 (fold change) Tukey’s HSD (p-value) log2 (fold change) Tukey’s HSD (p-value) log2 (fold change)
Triacylglycerols 4.28E-02 9.78E-01 0.06 9.18E-02 −0.49 5.95E-02 −0.55
MonoetherglycerophosphocholineO_plasmenyles 4.28E-03 4.70E-03 0.39 7.45E-03 0.08 3.18E-02 −0.32
MonoetherglycerophosphocholineP_plasmenyles 5.30E-03 1.79E-02 0.44 9.66E-01 −0.03 9.35E-03 −0.47
1-Monoetherglycerophosphocholine 1.70E-03 3.70E-03 0.41 9.77E-01 0.02 6.55E-03 −0.39
1-ether, 2-acylglycerophosphocholine O_plasmenyles 1.50E-02 5.56E-01 0.14 1.34E-01 −0.23 1.22E-02 −0.37
1-ether, 2-acylglycerophosphocholine P_plasmenyles 6.77E-03 9.07E-01 0.09 2.80E-02 −0.46 9.56E-03 −0.55
1-ether, 2-acylglycerophosphocholines 7.19E-03 6.95E-01 0.12 5.43E-02 −0.31 7.06E-03 −0.43
MonoetherglycerophosphoethanolaminesP_plasmenyles 4.18E-03 9.61E-02 0.41 9.65E-01 −0.04 5.54E-02 −0.46
Ceramides 1.05E-03 9.81E-01 −0.03 2.51E-03 −0.45 4.29E-03 −0.42
N-acyl ceramides 3.99E-03 9.94E-01 0.01 1.15E-02 −0.37 8.77E-03 −0.39
N-acyl sphingosines 3.99E-03 9.94E-01 0.01 1.15E-02 −0.37 8.77E-03 −0.39
Total sphingolipids 3.03E-02 7.81E-01 −0.10 2.95E-02 −0.36 1.29E-01 −0.26
Sum of Triacylglycerols& Cholesteryl Esters 2.34E-02 9.94E-01 0.03 5.00E-02 −0.49 3.92E-02 −0.51
L-Cystine to L-Glutamate 3.41E-02 9.61E-01 −0.06 8.30E-02 0.60 4.58E-02 0.66
Sphingomyelinase (Cer/SM) 2.16E-02 5.69E-01 0.09 1.68E-01 −0.15 1.76E-02 −0.23
  1. log2 (fold-change) and p-values follows the criterion of heatmap figure
  2. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s Honestly Significance Difference (HSD) post hoc test
  3. Bold indicates statistically significant p-values
  4. Group 1 Participants did not meet NAFLD criteria at the baseline and during the follow-up
  5. Group 2 Participants did not meet NAFLD criteria at baseline, but met NAFLD criteria during the follow-up
  6. Group 3 Participants met NAFLD criteria at baseline, but not during the follow-up
  7. Abbreviations: Cer ceramides, SM sphingomyelin, ChoE cholesteryl esters, Chol cholesterol