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Table 2 Body composition parameters and plasma metabolites

From: Markers of neuroprotection of combined EPA and DHA provided by fish oil are higher than those of EPA (Nannochloropsis) and DHA (Schizochytrium) from microalgae oils in Wistar rats

  Milk Fat Fish Oil Nanno Schyzo Significance
Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE Mean SE  
Growth parameters and tissues weight (g)
 Final body weight 460 10.7 449 13.1 460 10.4 426 9.04 0.062
 Total body weight gain 159a 6.59 148ab 7.18 152ab 6.05 129b 6.39 0.020
 Daily feed intake 21.0ab 0.331 19.6c 0.330 21.8a 0.348 19.7bc 0.487 0.001
 Liver 13.6 0.687 13.3 0.573 13.8 0.553 13.8 0.485 0.931
 Brain 1.48 0.035 1.46 0.031 1.42 0.030 1.45 0.022 0.588
 Hippocampus 0.392 0.012 0.433 0.025 0.401 0.014 0.414 0.031 0.533
Longissimus dorsi muscle 6.26 0.339 6.71 0.406 6.54 0.275 6.66 0.321 0.809
 Epididymal fat 6.01 0.646 5.59 0.510 6.20 0.459 5.21 0.308 0.315
 Retroperitoneal fat 4.62 0.654 4.05 0.405 4.63 0.320 4.54 0.413 0.712
 Carcass 199ab 3.73 195ab 5.23 201a 3.44 185b 4.52 0.046
Biochemistry profile
 Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 67.3a 1.16 50.4c 1.35 54.5c 1.02 61.9b 1.41 < 0.001
 HDL-Cholesterol (mg/l) 13.6 0.498 12.4 0.905 12.4 0.565 13.4 0.596 0.327
 LDL-Cholesterol (mg/dl) 32.2b 0.631 24.0d 0.949 28.5c 0.745 35.3a 0.686 < 0.001
 VLDL-Cholesterol (mg/dl)† 21.8a 0.235 14.0b 0.305 13.6b 0.371 13.2b 0.236 < 0.001
 LDL-C/HDL-C 2.33b 0.045 2.01b 0.143 2.34ab 0.111 2.66a 0.068 < 0.001
 Triacylglycerols (mg/dl) 109a 1.18 70.0b 1.52 68.1b 1.86 66.0b 1.18 < 0.001
 Total lipids (mg/dl)‡ 395a 2.75 320c 1.03 327bc 2.99 340b 3.66 < 0.001
 Glucose (mg/dl) 174a 2.15 150b 2.04 136c 2.83 129c 3.29 < 0.001
 Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.258 0.008 0.255 0.009 0.248 0.009 0.281 0.012 0.187
 Urea (mg/dl) 28.5c 1.02 33.8b 1.08 32.3bc 1.31 41.5a 1.21 < 0.001
 Total proteins (g/dl) 6.83 0.067 6.66 0.110 6.84 0.065 6.61 0.064 0.061
Hepatic and inflammatory markers
 AST (U/l) 112c 4.93 141b 5.26 81.3d 2.25 184a 7.08 < 0.001
 ALT (U/l) 44.3a 2.40 50.6a 1.28 36.4b 1.49 50.5a 3.02 < 0.001
 ALP (U/l) 94.6b 1.99 130a 6.58 85.9c 1.83 78.8d 2.47 < 0.001
 γ-GT (U/l) 2.10a 0.118 2.19a 0.096 0.440c 0.113 1.10b 0.085 < 0.001
 TNF-α (pg/ml) 155 11.6 168 24.7 124 6.86 141 9.88 0.080
 IL-6 (pg/ml) 4219b 456 4420b 333 3772b 463 7760a 237 < 0.001
  1. n = 8 per group. a,b,c Means in the same row with different superscripts are significantly different (PDIFF adjust Tukey, P < 0.05). †VLDL-Cholesterol = 1/5 [triacylglycerols]. ‡Total lipids = [total cholesterol] × 1.12 + [triacylglycerols] × 1.33 + 148