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Table 1 Effects of scFOS/OF supplementation on glucose homeostasis in healthy rodents

From: Fructo-oligosaccharides and glucose homeostasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis in animal models

Animal model Diet FOS dose Duration Fasting condition Postprandial condition Other metabolic results Microbiota analysis (yes/no) Included in meta-analysis (yes/no) References
G I Method G I
Standard diet: less than 20% of energy provided by fat
 Male Wistar rats 7% E fat, 73% E CHO 10% OF 4 w ND ND Fed ↓ TG, PP (blood and liver) = tot. Chol (blood and liver) NO YES [40]
 Male Wistar rats 7% E fat, 73% E CHO 10% OF 4 w = Fed (after 30d) OGTT (after 18d) ↓ (cardiac and portal blood) = ↓ (cardiac blood) ↓ ↓ TG and ↑ GIP (blood) ↑ caecal GLP-1, = GIP NO NO [41]
 Male Sprague-Dawley rats 9.8%E fat, 77.5% E CHO 5% scFOS 3–5 w = ↓ after 5 w ND ND ND ↓ adiponectin, leptin ↓ HOMA-IR after 5 w = TG, MCP-1, PAI-1 NO YES [25]
 Male Wistar rats 9.8% E fat, 77.5% E CHO 5% OF 10% OF 10 w = = ↓ ↓ ND ND ND ↓ HOMA-IR ↑ RBC glucose transmembrane transport NO YES [21]
 Male Wistar/ST rats 9.8%E fat, 77.5% E CHO 5% scFOS 48 d = = OGTT = = = HOMA-IR NO YES [23]
 Male Wistar rats 11.8% E fat, 69.4% E CHO (starch or fructose) 10% OF 4 w ND ND Fed = = ↓ TG ↓ leptin with fructose diet only YES YES [61]
 Female C57BL/6 J mice ± n-3 PUFA 14.3% E fat, 58.9% E CHO 0.2 g OF/ d 24 d ↓ (in n-3 depleted mice only) = OGTT = = = HOMA-IR ↑ colon proglucagon mRNA content = hepatic TG and Chol YES YES [22]
 Male Sprague-Dawley rats 16.4% E fat, 65.1% E CHO 2.5% or 5% scFOS 7 w = (tail and portal blood) = (tail blood) ↓(portal blood) with 5% scFOS IPGTT ↓ (2.5% at 30 min) ND = HOMA-IR ↑ portal fasting GLP-1 (5%) ↑proglucagon mRNA in caecum and colon (5%) = GLP-1 in ileum, caecum and colon NO NO [58]
High-fat diet: 20 to 60% of energy provided by fat
 Male Wistar rats 23.9% E fat, 56.8% E CHO 5% OF 3 w ND ND Feda = =   NO NO [83]
 Male Sprague-Dawley rats 27.5% E fat, 53.5% E CHO 10% scFOS 3 w ND ND Fed = = plasma acetate, propionate, butyrate ↓ FFA and TG = tot. Chol, PP NO YES [38]
 Male C57BL/6 J gnotobiotic mice 34.9% E fat, 26.3% E CHO 10% scFOS 6 w ND ND Fed (5 h after meal) OGTT = = AUCg = = I (20 and 60 min) ↓ leptin YES NO [46]
 Male C57BL/6 J mice Exp 2 HF2: 58% E fat, 26% E CHO 10% OF 4–8 w = = ND ND ND = colon proglucagon mRNA NO YES [16]
High-fat diet: more than 60% of energy provided by fat
 Male C57BL/6 J mice 72% E fat, < 1% E CHO 10% OF 4 w Fed IPGTT ↓ ↓ AUCg ↑ ND ↑ pancreatic insulin ↑ glucose infusion rate and ↓ hepatic glucose production (clamp euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic) ↑ colon proglucagon mRNA ↑ GLP-1 (plasma and colon) NO YES [15]
 Male C57BL/6 J mice Exp 1 HF1: 72% E fat, < 1% E CHO 10% OF 4–8 w ND ND ND ↑ colon proglucagon mRNA NO YES [16]
  1. CHO carbohydrates, Chol cholesterol, d days, E energy, FFA free fatty acids, FOS fructo-oligosaccharides, G glucose, I insulin, MCP-1 monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, ND no data, OF oligofructose, PAI-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, PP phospholipids, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids, RBC red blood cells, scFOS short-chain fructooligosaccharides, TG triglycerides, w weeks
  2. aFed condition not clearly indicated in the study