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Table 1 Effects of scFOS/OF supplementation on glucose homeostasis in healthy rodents

From: Fructo-oligosaccharides and glucose homeostasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis in animal models

Animal model Diet FOS dose Duration Fasting condition Postprandial condition Other metabolic results Microbiota analysis (yes/no) Included in meta-analysis (yes/no) References
G I Method G I
Standard diet: less than 20% of energy provided by fat
 Male Wistar rats 7% E fat, 73% E CHO 10% OF 4 w ND ND Fed ↓ TG, PP (blood and liver)
= tot. Chol (blood and liver)
NO YES [40]
 Male Wistar rats 7% E fat, 73% E CHO 10% OF 4 w = Fed (after 30d) OGTT (after 18d) ↓ (cardiac and portal blood)
=
↓ (cardiac blood)
↓ TG and ↑ GIP (blood)
↑ caecal GLP-1, = GIP
NO NO [41]
 Male Sprague-Dawley rats 9.8%E fat, 77.5% E CHO 5% scFOS 3–5 w = ↓ after 5 w ND ND ND ↓ adiponectin, leptin
↓ HOMA-IR after 5 w
= TG, MCP-1, PAI-1
NO YES [25]
 Male Wistar rats 9.8% E fat, 77.5% E CHO 5% OF 10% OF 10 w =
=

ND ND ND ↓ HOMA-IR
↑ RBC glucose transmembrane transport
NO YES [21]
 Male Wistar/ST rats 9.8%E fat, 77.5% E CHO 5% scFOS 48 d = = OGTT = = = HOMA-IR NO YES [23]
 Male Wistar rats 11.8% E fat, 69.4% E CHO (starch or fructose) 10% OF 4 w ND ND Fed = = ↓ TG
↓ leptin with fructose diet only
YES YES [61]
 Female C57BL/6 J mice ± n-3 PUFA 14.3% E fat, 58.9% E CHO 0.2 g OF/ d 24 d ↓ (in n-3 depleted mice only) = OGTT = = = HOMA-IR
↑ colon proglucagon mRNA content
= hepatic TG and Chol
YES YES [22]
 Male Sprague-Dawley rats 16.4% E fat, 65.1% E CHO 2.5% or 5% scFOS 7 w = (tail and portal blood) = (tail blood)
↓(portal blood) with 5% scFOS
IPGTT ↓ (2.5% at 30 min) ND = HOMA-IR
↑ portal fasting GLP-1 (5%)
↑proglucagon mRNA in caecum and colon (5%)
= GLP-1 in ileum, caecum and colon
NO NO [58]
High-fat diet: 20 to 60% of energy provided by fat
 Male Wistar rats 23.9% E fat, 56.8% E CHO 5% OF 3 w ND ND Feda = =   NO NO [83]
 Male Sprague-Dawley rats 27.5% E fat, 53.5% E CHO 10% scFOS 3 w ND ND Fed = = plasma acetate, propionate, butyrate
↓ FFA and TG
= tot. Chol, PP
NO YES [38]
 Male C57BL/6 J gnotobiotic mice 34.9% E fat, 26.3% E CHO 10% scFOS 6 w ND ND Fed (5 h after meal)
OGTT
=
= AUCg
=
= I (20 and 60 min)
↓ leptin YES NO [46]
 Male C57BL/6 J mice Exp 2 HF2: 58% E fat, 26% E CHO 10% OF 4–8 w = = ND ND ND = colon proglucagon mRNA NO YES [16]
High-fat diet: more than 60% of energy provided by fat
 Male C57BL/6 J mice 72% E fat, < 1% E CHO 10% OF 4 w Fed
IPGTT

↓ AUCg

ND
↑ pancreatic insulin
↑ glucose infusion rate and ↓ hepatic glucose production (clamp euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic)
↑ colon proglucagon mRNA
↑ GLP-1 (plasma and colon)
NO YES [15]
 Male C57BL/6 J mice Exp 1 HF1: 72% E fat, < 1% E CHO 10% OF 4–8 w ND ND ND ↑ colon proglucagon mRNA NO YES [16]
  1. CHO carbohydrates, Chol cholesterol, d days, E energy, FFA free fatty acids, FOS fructo-oligosaccharides, G glucose, I insulin, MCP-1 monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, ND no data, OF oligofructose, PAI-1 plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, PP phospholipids, PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids, RBC red blood cells, scFOS short-chain fructooligosaccharides, TG triglycerides, w weeks
  2. aFed condition not clearly indicated in the study