Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Changes in anthropometry, energy expenditure and ketone bodies during the study

From: Resting metabolic rate of obese patients under very low calorie ketogenic diet

  VLCK diet LC diet
  Visit C-1 Visit C-2 Visit C-3 Visit C-4
Diet time (days)   39.2 ± 8.4 89.7 ± 19.1 123.3 ± 17.6
Anthropometry
 Weight (kg) 95.9 ± 16.3 84.2 ± 13.0a 76.6 ± 11.1a,b 75.1 ± 11.8a,b
 Weight change (kg)   −11.7 ± 3.7d − 19.3 ± 6.4d − 20.7 ± 6.9d
 Weight change (%)   −12.0 ± 2.0d − 19.7 ± 4.0d − 21.3 ± 4.8d
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 35.5 ± 4.4 31.2 ± 3.3a 28.4 ± 2.6a,b 27.8 ± 2.9a,b
 Body fat DXA (%) 45.6 ± 5.4 43.1 ± 6.1a 37.9 ± 5.8a,b 35.7 ± 5.9a,b,c
 Fat mass DXA (kg) 42.2 ± 9.1 35.0 ± 7.8a 27.8 ± 5.7a,b 25.7 ± 5.8a,b
 Fat-free mass DXA (kg) 52.8 ± 10.2 48.5 ± 9.2a 48.3 ± 9.1a 49.0 ± 9.7a
 Muscle mass MF-BIA (kg) 31.2 ± 6.6 29.3 ± 6.4a 29.4 ± 6.3a 29.6 ± 6.6a
Energy expenditure
 RMR-measured (kcal/d) 1978.1 ± 415.7 1913.1 ± 317.2ns 1860.3 ± 341.9ns 1776.6 ± 309.3ns
 RMR-measured change (kcal/d)   −65.0 ± 343.7ns − 117.8 ± 489.3ns −201.5 ± 313.5ns
 RMR-measured change (%)   −1.0 ± 18.8ns −2.4 ± 25.6ns −8.3 ± 15.0ns
 RMR-expected FFM-DXA (kcal/d)   1820.2 ± 379.9 1811.1 ± 369.4 1837.7 ± 389.3
 Metabolic adaptation FFM-DXA (kcal/d)   92.8 ± 339.5ns 49.1 ± 470.5ns −61.0 ± 298.9ns
 RMR/Fat-free mass DXA (kcal/d/kg) 37.6 ± 5.5 40.1 ± 7.6ns 39.3 ± 8.7ns 36.5 ± 4.6ns
 RMR-expected MM-MF-BIA (kcal/d)   1856.1 ± 409.0 1863.1 ± 402.8 1873.6 ± 410.8
 Metabolic adaptation MM-MF-BIA (kcal/d)   56.9 ± 355.0ns −2.8 ± 504.4ns −96.9 ± 320.8ns
 RMR/Muscle mass MF-BIA (kcal/d/kg) 63.9 ± 10.5 66.9 ± 13.2ns 65.1 ± 15.2ns 60.9 ± 8.3ns
Ketone bodies
β-OHB 0.0 ± 0.1 1.0 ± 0.6a 0.7 ± 0.5a,b 0.2 ± 0.1b,c
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation. RMR: resting metabolic rate; FFM: fat-free mass; MM: muscle mass; β-OHB: β-hydroxy-butyrate 
  2. RMR-expected = RMR-measured Baseline – ((RMR-measured Baseline/Fat-free mass Baseline) X Δ Fat-free mass Visit-Baseline)
  3. Metabolic adaptation = RMR-measured – RMR-expected
  4. aP < 0.05 compared with Visit C-1; bP < 0.05 compared with Visit C-2; cP < 0.05 compared with Visit C-3 (Repeated measures ANOVA with Tukey’s adjustment for multiple comparisons); dP < 0.05 weight change significantly different from zero (Student’s t-test); ns: not significant