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Table 2 Biochemical measurements during the study

From: Resting metabolic rate of obese patients under very low calorie ketogenic diet

  VLCK diet LC diet
  Visit C-1 Visit C-2 Visit C-3 Visit C-4
Protein status
 Total proteins (g/dl) 7.2 ± 0.4 7.2 ± 0.4 7.1 ± 0.4 7.0 ± 0.4
 Albumin (g/dl) 3.8 ± 0.2 4.1 ± 0.1a 3.9 ± 0.1a,b 3.8 ± 0.2b
 Prealbumin (mg/dl) 26.6 ± 3.7 19.4 ± 3.2a 20.6 ± 3.5a 24.0 ± 3.6a,b,c
 Retinol-binding protein (mg/dl) 4.7 ± 0.9 3.3 ± 0.7a 3.5 ± 0.7a 4.1 ± 0.7a,b,c
 Lymphocytes (× 103/μl) 1.9 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 0.5a 1.6 ± 0.5a 1.8 ± 0.5b
Renal function
 Serum uric acid (mg/dl) 5.1 ± 1.1 5.4 ± 0.9 5.4 ± 0.8 5.0 ± 0.8
 Blood urea (mg/dl) 34.3 ± 10.0 26.3 ± 6.1a 34.1 ± 7.8b 33.1 ± 8.5b
 Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.6 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.1 0.6 ± 0.1
 Glomerular filtration rate (ml/min/1,73 m2) 129.7 ± 65.3 128.4 ± 46.5 118.6 ± 35.6 110.2 ± 24.2
Nitrogen balance
 Urine urea (g/day) 27.4 ± 9.7 23.4 ± 5.2 31.3 ± 8.2b 33.2 ± 7.7a,b
 Urine urea nitrogen (g/day) 12.8 ± 4.5 10.9 ± 2.4 14.6 ± 3.8b 15.5 ± 3.6a,b
 Protein intake (g nitrogen/day)* 12 16.8 16.8
 Nitrogen balance 1.0 ± 2.4 2.1 ± 3.8 1.2 ± 3.6
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation.*Refers to the amount of proteins prescribed in each step of the diet. aP < 0.05 compared with Visit C-1; bP < 0.05 compared with Visit C-2; cP < 0.05 compared with Visit C-3 (Repeated measures ANOVA with Tukey’s adjustment for multiple comparisons)