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Table 1 Some of the genes and their functions/organs regulated by vitamin D

From: Current therapies in alleviating liver disorders and cancers with a special focus on the potential of vitamin D

Gene Target Organ Regulation Function of genes involved
PTH Parathyroid gland down Induces Cyp27B1 and inhibit 24-hydroxylation, increase calcitriol synthesis
Cyp24A1 (VD-24-hydroxylase) kidney up Inactivates calcitriol to 1,24,25(OH)3D3, which can be oxidized to calcitriol acid for secretion
Interleukin −12(IL-12) Innate Immune Cell down Restrain Th1 activation by limiting IL-12
FGF15 (FGF19 for humans) Ileum up Suppresses bile acid synthesis in hepatocytes through induction of SHP
Cyp27B1 (VD-1alpha-hydroxylase kidney down Restrains VD synthesis by feedback inhibition
Cyp3A4 liver   Catabolizes bile acid and xenobiotics,
SULT2A1 liver up Detoxification of steroids, xenobiotics, and bile acid for secretion
MRP3 liver up Transportations of range of substrates such as anti-cancer drugs and bile acid
Cathelicidin intestine up immune defense against invasive bacterial infection
ASBT Ileum up Enhances bile acid re-adsorption from ileum, which may restrain bile acid synthesis in the liver via feedback inhibition
Calbindin D9K Intestine, Kidney up Transport of calcium across the enterocytes
TRPV6 intestine up Help in calcium absorption in the intestine
Defensin beta 2 Immune cells up Exhibits potent antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria and Candida, but not against Gram-positive S. aureus
FasL/CD95L Immune cells down Reduces apoptosis
E-cadherin skin down Restrains epithelial to mesenchymal transition
Interferon-gamma T cells up Restrains immunity