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Table 2 Clinical and non-clinical effect of Vitamin D on various target organs

From: Current therapies in alleviating liver disorders and cancers with a special focus on the potential of vitamin D

Function Target Organ/Function Reference
Inhibits in vitro HCV replication in a dose-dependent manner Liver [55]
Vitamin D supplementation may improve SVR rate in HCV among various genotypes Liver [128]
Low vitamin D level leads to non-responsiveness to interferon based treatment Liver [164,165,166]
Vitamin D deficiency causes downregulation of 25-hydroxylase CYP27A1 in, liver resulting in increased fibrosis and low SVR Liver [164, 167]
Deficiency causes increase in fibrosis and inflammation in liver Liver [164,165,166, 168, 169]
Supplementation/phototherapy improves liver histology in preclinical studies of NAFLD Liver[NAFLD] [170, 171]
Supplementation prevents liver fibrosis in preclinical studies Liver[NAFLD] [171, 172]
Low vitamin D level causes severe steatosis, inflammation and fibrosis Liver[NAFLD] [167, 169, 173, 174]
Vitamin D deficiency causes increased hepatic expression of TLR2, TLR4 and TLR9, which are implicated in NAFLD pathogenesis Liver[NAFLD] [174]
Vitamin D increases Ca and PO4 absorption from small intestine Calcium and Bone [175]
It Suppresses PTH secretion and Induces osteoclast maturation Calcium and Bone [175, 176]
Normal vitamin D level lowers prevalence of metabolic syndrome by 67% Pancreatic functions [177]
Supplementation improves insulin sensitivity and lowers risk of developing type 2 diabetes Pancreatic functions [178]
Vitamin D deficiency increases chances of insulin resistance Pancreatic functions [179]
Impaired pancreatic β-cell function in cases of low vitamin D level Pancreatic functions [180, 181]
Low level of vitamin D decreases macrophage TLR response and increase chances of TB infection Innate Immunity [182]
Vitamin D is essential for NK cell development and function Innate Immunity [183]
Vitamin D Inhibits proliferation of Th1 lymphocytes Adaptive Immune System [184]
Supplementation decreases risk of developing MS in women and type 1 diabetes in children Adaptive Immune System [177, 185]
Low vitamin D level increases risk of M. tuberculosis infection Immunity [186,187,188,189]
Normal Vitamin D level decreased population incidence of autoimmune diseases such as MS Immunity [190]
Higher 25(OH)D levels associated with lower incidence of colorectal adenoma Carcinogenesis [191]
Sunlight exposure associated with reduced risk of NHL Carcinogenesis [192]
Vitamin D decreased risk of colon, breast and prostate cancer Carcinogenesis [193,194,195,196,197,198]
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with bone weakness and painful crises SCD [199, 200]
vitamin D deficiency and its potential association with acute pain in SCD SCD [38]
  1. SVR Sustained Virological Response, NAFLD Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, TLR Toll like Receptor, PTH Parathyroid Hormone, MS Multiple Sclerosis, NHL Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, SCD Sickle Cell Disease