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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study participants (n = 2369) above and below median intake of dietary NOx: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (2006–2008) to 2014

From: Total antioxidant capacity of the diet modulates the association between habitual nitrate intake and cardiovascular events: A longitudinal follow-up in Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

  < median NOx ≥ median NOx P value
Age (y) 37.4 ± 2.7 38.8 ± 13.8 0.016
Male (%) 41.4 45.6 0.022
Smoking (%) 12.7 11.3 0.52
Body mass index (kg/m2) 26.6 ± 0.1 26.6 ± 0.1 0.92
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 109 ± 0.4 110 ± 0.4 0.16
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 72.5 ± 0.3 72.8 ± 0.3 0.38
Fasting serum glucose (mg/dL) 88.1 ± 0.5 89.6 ± 0.5 0.32
2 h- serum glucose (mg/dL) 97.6 ± 1.0 98.0 ± 1.0 0.79
CVD risk score 19.8 ± 0.72 19.9 ± 0.70 0.66
Diabetes (%) 3.4 4.7 0.08
Hypertension (%) 8.3 10.3 0.09
Dietary NO2 (mg/d) 8.7 ± 3.9 10.3 ± 3.7 0.001
 From vegetables (mg/d) 0.65 ± 0.43 1.1 ± 0.69 0.01
 From fruits (mg/d) 0.87 ± 0.56 2.4 ± 1.4 0.001
 From grains (mg/d) 2.1 ± 1.3 2.0 ± 1.1 0.23
 From legumes (mg/d) 0.07 ± 0.09 0.12 ± 0.16 0.11
 From dairy (mg/d) 8.7 ± 5.5 17.5 ± 10.1 0.001
 From meats (mg/d) 5.2 ± 4.2 6.6 ± 4.9 0.001
 From processed meats (mg/d) 1.5 ± 3.0 1.6 ± 2.1 0.78
Dietary NO3 (mg/d) 359 ± 119 562 ± 203 0.001
 From vegetables (mg/d) 158 ± 99.0 261 ± 162 0.001
 From fruits (mg/d) 35.2 ± 22.8 94.5 ± 56.4 0.001
 From grains (mg/d) 136 ± 79.01 133 ± 69.0 0.24
 From legumes (mg/d) 2.7 ± 3.5 3.9 ± 5.4 0.08
 From dairy (mg/d) 0.8 ± 0.4 1.5 ± 0.8 0.001
 From meats (mg/d) 1.9 ± 1.7 2.4 ± 1.7 0.001
 From processed meats (mg/d) 0.8 ± 2.05 0.8 ± 1.2 0.81
Dietary TAC (μmol TE/100 g) 1190 ± 632 1621 ± 777 0.001
Nitric oxide index 236 ± 107 440 ± 213 0.001
  1. Data are mean ± SD unless stated otherwise (independent t-test and chi-square test were used for continuous and dichotomous variable, respectively)
  2. Median intake of dietary nitrate, nitrite and nitrate+nitrite was 430, 8.9, and 439 mg/d, respectively
  3. NO3, nitrate, NO2, nitrite; NOx, NO3 + NO2; CVD cardiovascular disease, TAC total antioxidant capacity