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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population (n = 85) before and after eight-week LED and the change with corresponding levels of significance

From: Effect of low energy diet for eight weeks to adults with overweight or obesity on folate, retinol, vitamin B12, D and E status and the degree of inflammation: a post hoc analysis of a randomized intervention trial

  Baseline After LED Change
Anthropometry
 Body weight, kg 95.6 ± 13.9 83.3 ± 12.0 − 12.3 [− 13.1,-11.6]***
 Height, m 1.71 ± 0.07   
 BMI, kg/m2 32.7 ± 3.5 28.5 ± 3.2 − 4.2 [− 4.4,-4.0]***
 Waist circumference, cm 102 ± 11 91 ± 9 − 11 [− 12,-10]***
 Hip circumference, cm 116 ± 9 108 ± 8 − 8 [− 9,-7]***
 Waist-hip ratio 0.89 ± 0.09 0.85 ± 0.8 − 0.04 [− 0.05,-0.03]***
 Sagittal diameter, cm b 23.9 ± 2.5 20.1 ± 2.0 − 3.7 [− 4.0,-3.5]***
Body fat
 Total, kg 40 ± 9 32 ± 9 − 8.2 [− 8.8,-7.7]***
 Total, % 42 ± 6 38 ± 7 − 4.0 [− 4.4,-3.6]***
 Abdominal region, % 50 ± 6 44 ± 9 − 6.4 [− 7.4,-5.5]***
 Hip region, % 44 ± 7 41 ± 8 − 3.5 [− 3.8,-3.1]***
Serum concentrations
 CRP, nmol/L a, b, 22.9 (5.7,41.9) 4.8 (1,33.3) − 12.4 [− 20,-4.8]*
 Hcy, μmol/L 10.5 (8.3,12.7) 9.2 (7.9,11.1) − 1.4 [− 2.2,-0.7]**
 Folate, nmol/L 10.9 (8.6,15.0) 36.9 (26.7,46.9) 23.6 [21.3,26.1]***
 Vitamin B12, pmol/L 267 ± 114 332 ± 133 65 [49,80]***
 Retinol, μmol/L 1.8 ± 0.4 1.5 ± 0.4 − 0.4 [− 0.4,-0.3]***
 25(OH)D, nmol/L 36 (22,55) 50 (41,65) 15 [12,17]***
 α-tocopherol, μmol/L 28 (24,33) 21 (18,24) −7 [−9,-6]***
  1. Results before and after weight loss are presented as mean ± SD or median (interquartile range), changes are presented as mean [95% confidence intervals]; an = 81 at baseline and for change; bn = 84 at endpoint; 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxy vitamin D; CRP, C-reactive protein; Hcy, homocysteine; LED, low energy diet; * P < 0.01; **P < 0.001; ***P < 0.00000001