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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Nut consumption and risk of metabolic syndrome and overweight/obesity: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies and randomized trials

Study Country Age (yrs) Sample size Cases Outcomes Measurement of nuts Adjustments NOS score
Bes-Rastrollo 2007 [21] Spain 38 (mean) 6300 434 Overweight/obesity FFQ Age, sex, baseline BMI, leisure time PA, smoking, snacking and television watching 8
Bes-Rastrollo 2009 [17] US 20–45 51,188 5924 Obesity FFQ Age, alcohol intake, PA, smoking, postmenopausal hormone use, oral contraceptive use, baseline BMI, glycemic load, changes in the adherence of prudent and Western dietary patterns and food groups 8
Fernández-Montero 2013 [18] Spain 38 (mean) 9887 567 Mets FFQ Age, BMI, smoking, PA, alcohol intake and total energy intake 8
Freisling 2017 [19] 10 European countries 25–70 197,291 28,244 Overweight/obesity FFQ Age, sex, country, baseline BMI, follow-up time in years, total energy intake, educational level, PA, smoking, plausibility of dietary energy reporting and modified relative Mediterranean diet score  
127,445 12,633 Obesity 8
Hosseinpour-Niazi 2017 [20] Iran 19–74 1265 276 Mets FFQ Age, sex, BMI, smoking, family history of diabetes, PA, fasting glucose, HDL-C, total energy intake, total fiber, percent of protein, percent of carbohydrates, percent of total fat, cholesterol intake, fruit, vegetables and dairy products 7
Lutsey 2008 [22] US 45–64 9514 3782 Mets FFQ Age, sex, race, education, center, total calories, smoking, pack-years, PA and intakes of meat, dairy, fruits, vegetables, whole grains and refined grains 9
  1. BMI, body mass index; FFQ, food-frequency questionnaire; HDL-C, high density lipoprotein cholesterol; Mets, metabolic syndrome; NOS, Newcastle-Ottawa Scale; PA, physical activity