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Table 3 Dietary Effects on Plasma Levels of Glucose, Insulin and Ketones in Rats1

From: Very low-carbohydrate, high-fat, weight reduction diet decreases hepatic gene response to glucose in obese rats

DIET HOMA-IR Glucose ipGTT AUC ipGTT insulin β-hydroxy butyrate
mmol/L (mM)(min) ng/mL mmol/L
t0   t0 t30  
Phase 1
 LF 10.9+1.2a 5.5+0.2 542+41ab 1.58+0.12ab   
 HF1 12.7+1.8a 5.3+0.1 674+38a 1.85+0.22a   
Phase 2
 HF2 7.8+3.2a 5.9+0.4 453+53ab 1.03+0.41bc 1.97+0.49a* 0.62+2.30
 VLC 10.0+2.3a 6.5+0.5 442+22b 1.25+0.29b 2.5+0.61a* 0.5+0.07
 LC 3.3+1.0b 6.2+0.1 482+52ab 0.41+0.13cd 1.69+0.20ab* 0.49+0.05
 HC 1.3+0.1b 5.7+0.5 442+50b 0.18+0.02d 0.52+0.13b 0.51+0.16
  1. 1Values are means + SEM. Labeled means in a column without a common letter differ, P<0.05. * Different from t0, P<0.05. HOMA-IR units are (mmol/L)(μU/mL)/22.5. LF, lower- fat; HF1, high-fat Phase 1; HF2, high-fat Phase 2; VLC, very low-carbohydrate; LC, low-carbohydrate; HC, high-carbohydrate