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Fig. 4 | Nutrition & Metabolism

Fig. 4

From: The protective effect of neonatal oral administration of oleanolic acid against the subsequent development of fructose-induced metabolic dysfunction in male and female rats

Fig. 4

Effect of neonatal oral administration of oleanolic acid and fructose on relative epididymal fat mass (a), and visceral fat mass in male (b) and female (c) rats fed a high fructose diet. All data presented as mean ± standard deviation. α#*Significant increase in relative epididymal fat pad masses for male rats receiving a double fructose hit (HF + F) and relative visceral fat masses of male (2.6 ± 0.6 g/cm) and female (4.3 ± 0.4) rats receiving a single late fructose hit (DW + F) or male (3.7 ± 0.3 g/cm) and female (5.6 ± 0.9 g/cm) receiving a double fructose hit (as neonates and later in adulthood) HF + F (P < 0.05). DW + W = gavaged daily with 10 mL/kg body mass of distilled water with DMSO (0.5% v/v) in the neonatal period followed by ad libitum access to plain drinking water post-weaning and throughout adulthood (male = 7; female = 7); DW + F = gavaged daily with 10 mL/kg body mass of distilled water with DMSO (0.5% v/v) in the neonatal period followed by ad libitum access to 20% (w/v) fructose solution as drinking fluid in adulthood (male = 6; female = 6); OA + W = gavaged daily with 60 mg/kg body mass oleanolic acid in the neonatal period followed by ad libitum access to plain drinking water post-weaning and throughout adulthood (male = 8; female = 8); OA + F = gavaged with 60 mg/kg body mass oleanolic acid in the neonatal period followed by ad libitum access to 20% (w/v) fructose as drinking fluid in adulthood (male = 7; female = 8); HF + W = gavaged daily with 10 mL/kg body mass 20% (w/v) fructose solution in the neonatal period followed by ad libitum access to plain drinking water post-weaning and throughout adulthood (male = 6; female = 7); HF + F = gavaged daily with 10 mL/kg body mass 20% (w/v) fructose solution in the neonatal period followed by ad libitum access to 20% (w/v) fructose as drinking fluid in adulthood (male = 7; female = 8); OAHF + W = gavaged daily with 10 mL/kg body mass of a combination of oleanolic acid (60 mg/kg) and 20% (w/v) fructose solution in the neonatal period followed by ad libitum access to plain drinking water post-weaning and throughout adulthood (male = 7; female = 6); OAHF + F = gavaged daily with 10 mL/kg body mass of a combination of oleanolic acid (60 mg/kg) and 20% (w/v) fructose solution in the neonatal period followed by ad libitum access to 20% (w/v) fructose solution as drinking fluid in adulthood (male = 7; female = 7)

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