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Table 1 Comparison of selected characteristics between PLC cases and controls

From: Trimethylamine N-oxide, a gut microbiota-dependent metabolite of choline, is positively associated with the risk of primary liver cancer: a case-control study

Variables PLC Controls P value
Age (years)a 58.6 ± 7.6 58.6 ± 7.5 0.981
Men, n (%) 569 (84.8) 569 (84.8)
BMI (kg/m2) a 22.8 ± 3.1 23.8 ± 3.1 < 0.001
Household income (Yuan/month/person), n (%)
 ≤2000 206 (30.7) 355 (52.9) < 0.001
 2001–6000 410 (61.1) 283 (42.2)  
 > 6000 55 (8.2) 33 (4.9)  
Occupation, n (%)
 Light intensity of activity 246 (36.7) 365 (54.4) < 0.001
 Moderate intensity of activity 209 (31.2) 193 (28.8)  
 Heavy intensity of activity 216 (32.2) 113 (16.8)  
Married, n (%) 658 (98.1) 643 (95.8) 0.017
Education level, n (%)
 Primary school or below 176 (26.2) 38 (5.7) < 0.001
 Secondary & High school 387 (57.7) 409 (61.0)  
 College or above 108 (16.1) 224 (33.4)  
Smoker, n (%) 302 (45.0) 272 (40.6) 0.098
Alcohol drinker, n (%) 186 (27.7) 85 (12.7) < 0.001
HBV infection, n (%) 582 (86.7) 60 (8.9) < 0.001
Mets, n (%) 128 (19.1) 174 (25.9) 0.003
Serum choline (μmol/L) a 12.88 ± 4.53 17.33 ± 5.15 < 0.001
Serum TMAO (μmol/L) b 2.07 (1.32,3.49) 1.61 (0.87,2.92) 0.002
  1. Abbreviations: BMI = body mass index, PLC = primary liver cancer, HBV = hepatitis B virus, Mets = Metabolic syndrome, TMAO = trimethylamine N-oxide
  2. aContinuous values are mean ± S.D.
  3. bValue is median (IQR)