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Table 2 Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of PLC according to quartiles of serum TMAO and choline levels among controls

From: Trimethylamine N-oxide, a gut microbiota-dependent metabolite of choline, is positively associated with the risk of primary liver cancer: a case-control study

  Level (μmol/L) n (Cases/Controls) OR1 (95% CI) a OR2 (95% CI) b
Serum TMAO
 Q1 ≤0.87 66/168 1.00 1.00
 Q2 0.87–1.61 167/168 2.53 (1.77–3.61) 2.41 (1.32–4.40)
 Q3 1.61–2.92 213/168 3.23 (2.28–4.58) 2.91 (1.62–5.23)
 Q4 ≥2.92 225/167 3.43 (2.42–4.86) 2.85 (1.59–5.11)
P-trend    < 0.001 0.003
Serum choline
 Q1 ≤13.27 425/167 1.00 1.00
 Q2 13.27–16.95 134/168 0.29 (0.22–0.39) 0.35 (0.21–0.57)
 Q3 16.95–21.03 68/168 0.15 (0.11–0.21) 0.22 (0.12–0.38)
 Q4 ≥21.03 44/168 0.09 (0.06–0.14) 0.15 (0.08–0.28)
P-trend    < 0.001 < 0.001
  1. aAdjusted for age and sex
  2. bFurther adjusted for BMI, household income, occupation, marital status, smoking status, alcohol use, presence of metabolic syndrome, and HBV infection status