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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the participants stratified by coffee consumption

From: Coffee consumption is positively related to insulin secretion in the Shanghai High-Risk Diabetic Screen (SHiDS) Study

  Non-coffee (n = 818) Coffee (n = 510) Total (n = 1328) P
Male (n, %) 330 (40.34%) 210 (41.18%) 540 (40.66%) 0.763
Age, years (mean, SD) 52.80 (14.22) 48.34 (14.49) 51.08 (14.47) <  0.001
Weight, kg (mean, SD) 65.07 (12.60) 69.99 (14.24) 66.95 (13.46) <  0.001
BMI, kg/m2 (mean, SD) 23.96 (3.65) 25.18 (4.08) 24.43 (3.87) <  0.001
Waist, cm (mean, SD) 86.46 (10.19) 88.79 (11.07) 87.35 (10.59) <  0.001
Fat, % (mean, SD) 28.37 (7.70) 29.81 (8.25) 28.91 (7.94) 0.004
SBP, mmHg (mean, SD) 130.39 (18.17) 130.23 (17.41) 130.33 (17.88) 0.880
DBP, mmHg (mean, SD) 79.02 (10.93) 79.20 (11.33) 79.09 (11.09) 0.776
Diabetic family history (n, %) 351 (44.94%) 249 (50.82%) 1271 (47.21%) 0.041
Hypertension (n, %) 279 (34.15%) 160 (31.37%) 1327 (33.08%) 0.296
Dislipidemia (n, %) 249 (30.48%) 168 (33.01%) 1326 (31.45%) 0.335
Higher Education (n, %) 370 (45.23%) 312 (61.18%) 1328 (51.36%) <  0.001
Current smoke (n, %) 104 (12.73%) 91 (17.88%) 1326 (14.71%) 0.010
Current alcohol intake (n, %) 115/703 (14.06%) 107/402 (21.02%) 222 (16.73%) 0.001
Tea consumption (n, %) 293 (35.91%) 321 (62.94%) 1326 (46.30%) <  0.001
Frequent physical activity (n, %) 629 (76.99%) 385 (75.49%) 1327 (76.41%) 0.532
FPG, mmol/L (median, IQR) 6.15 (5.46–7.06) 6.04 (5.36–7.14) 6.11 (5.42–7.08) 0.259
PG30min, mmol/L (median, IQR) 10.67 (9.09–12.38) 10.47 (9.05–12.27) 10.60 (9.07–12.35) 0.188
PG1h, mmol/L (median, IQR) 12.29 (9.79–15.25) 12.19 (9.43–14.97) 12.25 (9.68–15.14) 0.148
PG2h, mmol/L (median, IQR) 10.02 (7.36–14.31) 9.53 (7.09–13.47) 9.85 (7.28–14.06) 0.024
PG3h, mmol/L (median, IQR) 6.69 (4.84–9.62) 6.30 (4.55–8.97) 6.45 (4.74–9.35) 0.016
FIN, uIU/mL (median, IQR) 8.43 (5.75–12.61) 10.10 (6.94–16.22) 9.08 (6.02–13.81) <  0.001
IN30min, uIU/mL (median, IQR) 44.05 (27.52–69.97) 58.09 (34.50–93.70) 48.21 (28.82–80.23) <  0.001
IN1h, uIU/mL (median, IQR) 64.58 (40.18–101.45) 77.03 (50.30–121.83) 69.20 (44.25–107.50) <  0.001
IN2h, uIU/mL (median, IQR) 69.91 (45.83–115.70) 81.54 (51.53–128.38) 74.75 (48.05–119.05) 0.002
IN3h, uIU/mL (median, IQR) 32.22 (17.34–57.65) 34.29 (18.23–62.04) 32.75 (17.64–58.38) 0.237
HbA1c, % (median, IQR) 6.00 (5.60–6.50) 5.90 (5.50–6.60) 5.90 (5.60–6.50) 0.855
GA, % (median, IQR) 14.30 (12.80–16.60) 13.85 (12.40–16.70) 14.10 (12.70–16.68) 0.263
Newly diagnosed diabetes (n, %) 381 (46.58%) 213 (41.76%) 594 (44.73%) 0.037
Impaired glucose regulation (n, %) 237 (28.97%) 148 (29.02%) 385 (28.99%) 0.241
HOMA-β (mean, SD) 84.30 (89.77) 104.65 (103.29) 92.11 (95.66) <  0.001
HOMA-IR (median, IQR) 2.37 (1.49–3.71) 2.80 (1.75–4.61) 2.52 (1.60–4.04) <  0.001
Stumvoll first phase (mean, SD) 459.97 (1096.52) 717.67 (1060.32) 558.85 (1089.60) <  0.001
Stumvoll second phase (mean, SD) 179.32 (248.52) 242.04 (246.55) 203.33 (249.54) <  0.001
  1. Continuous variables were compared by t-test while classified variable by chi-square test
  2. Variables with approximately normal distribution were presented as means ± standard deviation while those with skew distribution were shown as median (inter quartile range) and classified variable as frequencies and percentages
  3. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, IQR inter quartile range, BMI body mass index, SBP systolic pressure, DBP diastolic pressure, FPG fasting plasma glucose, PG30min 30-min postprandial plasma glucose, PG1h 1-h postprandial plasma glucose, PG2h 2-h postprandial plasma glucose, PG3h 3-h postprandial plasma glucose, HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, GA glycated albumin, FIN fasting serum insulin, IN30min 30-min postprandial serum insulin, IN1h 1-h postprandial serum insulin, IN2h 2-h postprandial serum insulin, IN3h 3-h postprandial serum insulin, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-β, homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function