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Table 2 Adjusted Mean (SD) values for metabolic measures according to the relationship with coffee consumption

From: Coffee consumption is positively related to insulin secretion in the Shanghai High-Risk Diabetic Screen (SHiDS) Study

lgPG2h lgPG3h
  Non-coffee Coffee P*   Non-coffee Coffee P*
Model 1 1.01 ± 0.18 0.98 ± 0.19 0.477 Model 1 0.84 ± 0.21 0.81 ± 0.21 0.122
Model 2 1.01 ± 0.18 0.99 ± 0.19 0.020 Model 2 0.85 ± 0.21 0.82 ± 0.21 0.021
Model 3 1.02 ± 0.18 0.99 ± 0.19 0.002 Model 3 0.85 ± 0.21 0.82 ± 0.21 0.010
lgFIN lgIN30min
  Non-coffee Coffee P*   Non-coffee Coffee P*
Model 1 0.92 ± 0.29 1.01 ± 0.29 < 0.001 Model 1 1.64 ± 0.34 1.74 ± 0.36 < 0.001
Model 2 0.92 ± 0.30 1.01 ± 0.29 0.012 Model 2 1.64 ± 0.34 1.75 ± 0.35 0.002
Model 3 0.92 ± 0.29 1.01 ± 0.29 0.010 Model 3 1.64 ± 0.34 1.74 ± 0.35 0.001
lgIN1h lgIN2h
  Non-coffee Coffee P*   Non-coffee Coffee P*
Model 1 1.80 ± 0.31 1.87 ± 0.32 < 0.001 Model 1 1.85 ± 0.31 1.90 ± 0.31 0.004
Model 2 1.79 ± 0.30 1.87 ± 0.31 0.014 Model 2 1.85 ± 0.31 1.90 ± 0.30 0.287
Model 3 1.79 ± 0.30 1.87 ± 0.31 0.002 Model 3 1.85 ± 0.31 1.90 ± 0.30 0.120
lgHOMA-IR HOMA-β
  Non-coffee Coffee P*   Non-coffee Coffee P*
Model 1 0.37 ± 0.32 0.44 ± 0.33 < 0.001 Model 1 84.30 ± 89.77 104.65 ± 103.29 0.025
Model 2 0.37 ± 0.33 0.45 ± 0.32 0.053 Model 2 80.59 ± 85.37 104.70 ± 96.93 0.090
Model 3 0.37 ± 0.32 0.45 ± 0.32 0.085 Model 3 78.06 ± 70.61 99.44 ± 74.48 0.033
Stumvoll first phase Stumvoll second phase
  Non-coffee Coffee P*   Non-coffee Coffee P*
Model 1 459.97 ± 1096.52 717.67 ± 1060.32 0.005 Model 1 179.32 ± 248.52 242.04 ± 246.55 0.002
Model 2 415.95 ± 1102.94 681.45 ± 1041.09 0.045 Model 2 170.08 ± 249.30 236.52 ± 236.91 0.020
Model 3 392.53 ± 1101.89 659.70 ± 1029.83 0.003 Model 3 166.15 ± 249.01 232.98 ± 233.96 0.001
  1. Values presented as Mean ± SD. PG2h, PG3h, FIN, IN30min, IN1h, IN2h and HOMA-IR were logarithmic transformed
  2. *P-value for the test of any association between coffee consumption and the outcome of interest
  3. Model 1: adjusted for age
  4. Model 2: Model 1 + BMI, Fat%, Waist
  5. Model 3: Model 2 + education status, smoke status, alcohol intake, tea consumption, diabetes family history
  6. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, BMI body mass index, PG2h 2-h postprandial plasma glucose, PG3h 3-h postprandial plasma glucose, FIN fasting serum insulin, IN30min 30-min postprandial serum insulin, IN1h 1-h postprandial serum insulin, IN2h 2-h postprandial serum insulin, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-β homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function