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Table 3 Odds ratios (95% CI) for the association between coffee consumption and insulin secretion indexes

From: Coffee consumption is positively related to insulin secretion in the Shanghai High-Risk Diabetic Screen (SHiDS) Study

  HOMA-β (the highest quartiles)
coffee consumption OR 95% CI P*
 Model 1 2.240 1.598–3.140 < 0.001
 Model 2 2.048 1.359–3.086 0.001
 Model 3 2.262 1.451–3.527 < 0.001
  Stumvoll first phase (the highest quartiles)
coffee consumption OR 95% CI P*
 Model 1 1.818 1.297–2.549 0.001
 Model 2 1.807 1.222–2.672 0.003
 Model 3 2.041 1.331–3.131 0.001
  Stumvoll second phase (the highest quartiles)
coffee consumption OR 95% CI P*
 Model 1 1.730 1.238–2.419 0.001
 Model 2 1.762 1.196–2.595 0.004
 Model 3 1.890 1.243–2.874 0.003
  1. *P-value for the test of any association between coffee consumption and the outcome of interest
  2. Model 1: adjusted for age, gender distribution
  3. Model 2: Model 1 + BMI, Fat%, Waist
  4. Model 3: Model 2 + education status, smoke status, alcohol intake, tea consumption, diabetes family history