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Table 5 The changes in weight, BMI, glucose indices, nesfatin, inflammatory factors, and liver enzymes in overweight/obese NAFLD patients

From: Nano-curcumin improves glucose indices, lipids, inflammation, and Nesfatin in overweight and obese patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial

Variables Intervention Baseline Mean(SD) 3 Months Mean(SD) P-value$ Mean Difference (95% CI) P-value#
Time Treatment Interaction
Weight (kg) Nanocurcumin (n = 42) 86.5 (10.9) 83.7 (10.7) < 0.001 −2.8 (−3.5, −2.0) < 0.001 0.8 0.3
Placebo (n = 42) 86.7(11.0) 84.3(11.0) < 0.001 −2.4 (−3.1, −1.6) < 0. 1 0.3 0.3
BMI (kg/m2)* Nanocurcumin (n = 42) 30.6(2.14) 29.7(2.10) < 0.001 −0.9 (− 1.0, −0.7) < 0.001 0.6 0.2
Placebo (n = 42) 30.7(2.35) 29.9(2.53) < 0.001 − 0.8 (− 0.9, − 0.6) 0.03 0.9 0.3
Fat Mass (%) Nanocurcumin (n = 42) 31.6(6.4) 30.3(6.5) < 0.001 −1.3 (− 1.7, − 0.8) < 0.001 0.7 0.3
Placebo (n = 42) 31.9(4.7) 30.7(4.9) < 0.001 −1.2 (− 1.5, − 0.8) 0.003 0.1 0.9
Waist circumference (cm) Nanocurcumin (n = 42) 105.4(6.2) 99.6(5.7) < 0.001 −5.8 (−6.2, −5.3) < 0.001 0.6 < 0.001
Placebo (n = 42) 103.8(6.7) 102.5(6.9) < 0.001 −1.3 (− 1.7, − 0.8) 0.07 0.9 < 0.001
SBP (mmhg) Nanocurcumin (n = 42) 120.3(4.7) 118.2(4.4) 0.008 −2.1 (−2.4, −1.7) 0.001 0.3 0.3
Placebo (n = 42) 120.7(4.3) 119.6(4.9) 0.07 −1.1 (−1.4, −0.7) 0.7 0.4 0.8
DBP (mmhg) Nanocurcumin (n = 42) 78.8(4.5) 77.9(2.9) 0.102 −0.9 (−1.1, − 0.6) 0.008 0.2 0.7
Placebo (n = 42) 79.8(4.3) 78.7(3.4) 0.03 −1.1 (−1.3, 0.8) 0.4 0.4 0.7
ALT (u/l)** Nanocurcumin (n = 42) 42.8(11.6) 32.6(9.9) < 0.001 −10.2 (− 10.9, −9.4) < 0.001 0.1 < 0.001
Placebo (n = 42) 42.1(8.2) 39.6(7.5) 0.001 −2.5 (−3.0, 1.9) 0.4 0.3 < 0.001
AST (u/l)^ Nanocurcumin (n = 42) 28.43(6.7) 22.03(5.9) < 0.001 −6.4 (−6.8, −5.9) < 0.001 0.3 < 0.001
Placebo (n = 42) 27.60(7.8) 25.63(7.2) 0.002 −1.97 (−2.47, − 1.46) 0.052 0.7 < 0.001
TC (mg/dl) Nanocurcumin (n = 42) 212.9(18.9) 195.2(19.8) < 0.001 −17.7 (− 19.0, − 16.3) < 0.001 0.2 0.002
Placebo (n = 42) 211.8(21.8) 205.0(20.5) 0.005 −6.8 (−8.2, 5.3) 0.3 0.9 0.01
LDL-c (mg/dl) Nanocurcumin (n = 42) 135.6(17.6) 114.6(20.5) < 0.001 −21.0 (−22.2, −19.7) < 0.001 0.3 < 0.001
Placebo (n = 42) 133.0(20.7) 125.7(22.2) < 0.001 −7.3 (−8.7, −5.8) 0.01 0.9 0.003
TG (mg/dl) Nanocurcumin (n = 42) 175.9(70.3) 142.5(49.9) < 0.001 −33.4 (−37.5, −29.2) < 0.001 0.1 < 0.001
Placebo (n = 42) 181.2(65.6) 175.3(62.5) 0.007 −5.9 (−10.2, −1.5) 0.5 0.057 0.001
HDL-c (mg/dl) Nanocurcumin (n = 42) 41.8(5.6) 51.4(6.6) < 0.001 9.6 (9.1, 10.0) < 0.001 0.009 < 0.001
Placebo (n = 42) 42.7(5.7) 43.8(5.4) 0.001 1.1 (0.7, 1.4) < 0.001 0.04 < 0.001
FBS (mg/dl) Nanocurcumin (n = 42) 89.1(5.4) 86.3(5.2) < 0.001 −2.8 (−3.1, −2.4) < 0.001 0.3 < 0.001
Placebo (n = 42) 89.3(5.8) 88.2(5.5) < 0.001 −1.1 (−1.4, 0.7) 0.6 0.2 0.03
HbA1c (%) Nanocurcumin (n = 42) 5.2(0.218) 5.1(0.229) < 0.001 −0.1 (−0.115, −0.085) < 0.001 0.1 0.001
Placebo (n = 42) 5.3(0.218) 5.2(0.188) < 0.001 −0.1 (− 0.114, − 0.086) 0.01 0.8 0.002
Nesfatin (ng/ml) Nanocurcumin (n = 42) 1.81(0.54) 3.37(8.8) < 0.001 1.56 (1.52, 1.59) < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Placebo (n = 42) 1.88(0.49) 2.06(7.6) < 0.001 .18 (0.14, 0.21) < 0.001 0.003 < 0.001
FBI (μIU/ml) Nanocurcumin (n = 42) 8.0(0.5) 6.5(0.9) < 0.001 −1.5 (−1.54, −1.45) < 0.001 0.001 < 0.001
Placebo (n = 42) 7.9(0.6) 7.6(0.7) < 0.001 −0.3 (−0.34, −0.25) 0.3 0.08 < 0.001
TNF-α (ng/l) Nanocurcumin (n = 42) 14.7(3.3) 7.3(2.9) < 0.001 −7.4 (−7.5, −7.2) < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Placebo (n = 42) 15.1(2.7) 13.7(4.0) < 0.001 1.4 (−1.63, −1.16) 0.002 < 0.001 < 0.001
IL-6 (ng/l) Nanocurcumin (n = 42) 7.60(1.56) 3.81(1.63) < 0.001 −3.79 (−3.88, −3.69) < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
Placebo (n = 42) 7.99(1.52) 7.02(7.6) < 0.001 −0.97 (−1.07, −0.86) < 0.001 < 0.001 < 0.001
hs-CRP (mg/l) Nanocurcumin (n = 42) 5.9(2.57) 3.6(1.58) < 0.001 −2.3 (−2.44, −2.15) < 0.001 0.3 < 0.001
Placebo (n = 42) 5.3(2.50) 5.2(2.47) < 0.001 0.1 (−0.26, 0.06) < 0.001 0.3 < 0.001
HOMA-IR (score) Nanocurcumin (n = 42) 1.77(0.16) 1.39(0.21) < 0.001 −0.38 (− 0.39, − 0.36) < 0.001 0.001 < 0.001
Placebo (n = 42) 1.75(0.17) 1.65(0.18) < 0.001 0.1 (−0.11, − 0.08) 0.3 0.04 < 0.001
QUICKI (score) Nanocurcumin (n = 42) 0.3505(0.0049) 0.3643(0.0092) < 0.001 0.0138 0.0143, 0.0133) < 0.001 0.001 < 0.001
Placebo (n = 42) 0.3509(0.0057) 0.3543(0.0068) < 0.001 0.0034 (0.0038, 0.0029) 0.3 0.3 < 0.001
  1. *Inversely transformed; **Transformed by square root; ^Logarithmically transformed; $Paired t-test; #Two way repeated measures-ANOVA (TWRM-ANOVA), top row: unadjusted; bottom row: adjusted for energy, total fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fatty acid, vitamins D, B1, B6, and folate. ALT alanine transaminase, AST aspartate transaminase, BMI body mass index, FBI fasting blood insulin,FBS fasting blood sugar, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, hs-CRP: high-sensitive C-reactive protein, HDL-C: high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, IL-6: interleukin-6, LDL-C: low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, QUICKI: quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, TC: total cholesterol, TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor-alpha