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Table 3 Risks for hypertension based on BMI and metabolic status as defined by MetS components or insulin resistance among men and women: Tehran lipid and Glucose study

From: Sex specific impact of different obesity phenotypes on the risk of incident hypertension: Tehran lipid and glucose study

  N (event) Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c
   HR 95% CI HR 95% CI HR 95% CI
Men
 Defined by MetS componentsc
  Metabolically healthy normal weight 369(66) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Metabolically healthy overweight 81(19) 1.37 0.82–2.28 1.19 0.71–1.99 0.98 0.58–1.71
  Metabolically healthy obese 7(3) 3.20 1.00–10.21 2.31 0.72–7.44 1.53 0.44–5.29
  Metabolically unhealthy normal weight 322 (98) 1.50 1.09–2.05 1.07 0.78–1.48 1.03 0.75–1.43
  Metabolically unhealthy overweight 568(216) 2.05 1.55–2.71 1.32 0.98–1.76 1.05 0.72–1.52
  Metabolically unhealthy obese 193(91) 2.65 1.93–3.64 1.63 1.16–2.27 1.06 0.61–1.83
 Defined by insulin resistanced
  Insulin sensitive normal weight 612(144) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Insulin sensitive overweight 426(145) 1.49 1.18–1.87 1.21 0.96–1.53 0.98 0.73–1.34
  Insulin sensitive obese 84(38) 1.88 1.31–2.69 1.46 1.01–2.09 0.95 0.54–1.66
  Normal weight with insulin resistance 79(20) 1.27 0.79–2.03 0.88 0.55–1.43 0.85 0.52–1.37
  Overweight with insulin resistance 223(90) 1.88 1.44–2.44 1.26 0.95–1.66 0.99 0.69–1.42
  Obese with insulin resistance 116(56) 2.44 1.79–3.33 1.62 1.17–2.24 1.04 0.60–1.78
Women
 Defined by MetS componentsc
  Metabolically healthy normal weight 629(75) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Metabolically healthy overweight 473(81) 1.19 0.86–1.63 1.08 0.79–1.48 0.99 0.69–1.41
  Metabolically healthy obese 129(51) 2.72 1.89–3.89 2.42 1.69–3.48 1.96 1.16–3.32
  Metabolically unhealthy normal weight 130(54) 2.73 1.91–3.90 2.02 1.40–2.91 1.98 1.37–2.86
  Metabolically unhealthy overweight 388(168) 3.14 2.38–4.15 2.29 1.72–3.04 2.08 1.49–2.90
  Metabolically unhealthy obese 370(200) 3.81 2.9–5.01 2.55 1.92–3.38 2.06 1.27–3.30
 Defined by insulin resistance
  Insulin sensitive normal weight 522(86) 1.00   1.00   1.00  
  Insulin sensitive overweight 444(104) 1.19 0.89–1.58 1.09 0.82–1.46 0.99 0.71–1.37
  Insulin sensitive obese 183(85) 2.17 1.61–2.94 1.79 1.32–2.43 1.42 0.89–2.27
  Normal weight with insulin resistance 237(43) 1.29 0.89–1.86 1.15 0.79–1.67 1.14 0.79–1.65
  Overweight with insulin resistance 417(145) 2.11 1.61–2.76 1.63 1.24–2.14 1.46 1.06–2.02
  Obese with insulin resistance 316(166) 3.04 2.34–3.96 2.09 1.61–2.74 1.63 1.01–2.62
  1. MetS, metabolic syndrome; BMI, body mass index; N, number; HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval
  2. aModel 1, adjusted for age; bModel 2, adjusted for model 1 plus current smoking status, low physical activity, diabetes mellitus, family history of premature CVD, SBP, Phase of recruitment and eGFR; cModel 3, adjusted for model 2 plus BMI dParticipants considered as metabolically healthy if they had ≤ 1 of the JIS components. dInsulin resistance was defined as a HOMA-IR ≥ 2.17 among men and HOMA-IR≥ 1.85 among women [23].