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Fig. 12 | Nutrition & Metabolism

Fig. 12

From: Stingless bee honey protects against lipopolysaccharide induced-chronic subclinical systemic inflammation and oxidative stress by modulating Nrf2, NF-κB and p38 MAPK

Fig. 12

The proposed mechanism underlying the ameliorative effect of SBH on LPS-induced CSSI induced. The binding of LPS with Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) provokes the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondria, and activates p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), resulting in the production of inflammatory cytokines and tissue damage. SBH up-regulates nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), enhances antioxidant defenses, attenuates ROS production, and suppresses NF-κB and p38 MAPK signaling, leading to diminished inflammation. Therefore, SBH prevented LPS-induced CSSI via its dual ability to attenuate inflammation and oxidative stress

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