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Table 4 Differential metabolites from fetal livers in the top ten enriched KEGG pathways

From: Evidence for liver energy metabolism programming in offspring subjected to intrauterine undernutrition during midgestation

Metabolitea m/z rt(s) VIP Fold change P value
Lysine degradation
 N6-Acetyl-L-lysine 189.12 653.67 1.85 1.30 0.022
 L-Lysine 147.11 984.76 4.86 1.19 < 0.000
 L-Pipecolic acid 130.09 984.75 3.83 1.19 < 0.000
 Glutaric acid 131.04 491.25 1.39 0.49 0.046
 DL-2-Aminoadipic acid 162.08 697.23 1.37 1.68 0.066
 Glycine 74.03 704.95 1.19 1.30 0.002
Glycerophospholipid metabolism
 Glycerol 3-phosphate 171.01 816.37 5.92 1.18 0.053
 Glycerophosphocholine 258.11 763.17 1.76 0.65 0.023
 Phosphorylcholine 242.08 732.23 4.08 0.73 0.045
 Acetylcholine 146.12 709.06 5.58 0.82 0.040
 O-Phosphoethanolamine 140.01 864.35 2.45 1.12 0.082
 sn-Glycerol 3-phosphoethanolamine 216.06 740.82 7.13 0.69 0.038
Fructose and mannose metabolism
 Alpha-D-Glucose 179.06 557.54 9.79 1.44 0.012
 D-Sorbitol 181.07 556.12 13.69 0.72 0.014
 D-Mannitol 183.09 551.07 5.18 0.71 0.046
 D-Mannose 198.10 551.23 3.52 1.40 0.032
 Beta-D-Fructose 6-phosphate 259.02 814.70 1.60 0.77 0.018
 DL-lactate 89.03 556.73 1.15 1.24 0.088
Galactose metabolism
 Alpha-D-Glucose 179.06 557.54 9.79 1.44 0.012
 D-Sorbitol 181.07 556.12 13.69 0.72 0.014
 D-Mannose 198.10 551.23 3.52 1.40 0.032
 Glycerol 151.06 187.25 1.08 1.06 0.081
 D-Tagatose 179.06 370.37 1.15 0.65 0.061
Arginine biosynthesis
 L-Glutamine 145.06 699.84 5.05 1.08 0.037
 L-Pyroglutamic acid 130.05 559.43 2.25 1.25 0.007
 L-Citrulline 176.10 731.72 3.45 1.42 0.007
Purine metabolism
 L-Glutamine 145.06 699.84 5.05 1.08 0.037
 Inosine 269.09 306.89 1.26 0.41 0.031
 Hypoxanthine 135.03 304.52 5.86 1.06 0.084
 Adenosine 250.09 186.16 1.65 0.77 0.071
 Adenosine 5′-diphosphate (ADP) 426.02 870.44 1.04 1.19 0.072
 Glycine 74.03 704.95 1.19 1.30 0.002
Primary bile acid biosynthesis
 Taurochenodeoxycholate 498.29 251.31 10.41 1.48 0.047
 Glycine 74.03 704.95 1.19 1.30 0.002
 Taurocholate 516.30 381.79 1.89 0.67 0.067
 Glycocholic acid 483.34 465.40 1.68 0.45 0.022
Histidine metabolism
 1-Methylhistidine 170.09 691.63 2.94 1.34 0.069
 L-Carnosine 227.11 791.19 3.32 0.79 0.012
 L-Histidine 156.08 706.27 3.82 1.26 0.022
 1-Methylhistamine 126.10 624.34 3.19 2.84 0.033
Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
 DL-Serine 104.04 704.80 6.00 1.29 0.001
 Glycine 74.03 704.95 1.19 1.30 0.002
 L-Threonine 120.07 654.22 2.79 1.14 0.007
Glycolysis/Gluconeogenesis
 alpha-D-Glucose 179.06 557.54 9.79 1.44 0.012
 D-Glucose 6-phosphate 261.04 895.44 4.43 0.67 0.065
 DL-lactate 89.03 556.73 1.15 1.24 0.088
  1. aDifferential metabolites were identified based on the variable importance for a projection (VIP) value > 1, a correlation coefficient between the X variables and a predictive score of predictive component 1 [p (corr)] > 0.6 in the OPLS-DA model and an independent t-test with a significant difference (P < 0.05) and a potential difference (0.05 < P < 0.10). If one differential metabolite was detected in both positive and negative modes, the parameters from positive mode are presented